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Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F. E., Ortiz, C., Torres, S., Brol, M. J., Tyc, O., Gu, W., Grimm, C., Zeuzem, S., Plamper, A., Pfeifer, P., Zimmer, S., Welsch, C., Schaefer, L., Rheinwalt, K. P., Clària, J., Arroyo, V., Trebicka, J., Klein, S., (2020). The role of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin in different stages of chronic liver disease Frontiers in Immunology 11, 1352

The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (mincle) is part of the innate immune system and acts as a pattern recognition receptor for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Ligand binding induces mincle activation which consequently interacts with the signaling adapter Fc receptor, SYK, and NF-kappa-B. There is also evidence that mincle expressed on macrophages promotes intestinal barrier integrity. However, little is known about the role of mincle in hepatic fibrosis, especially in more advanced disease stages. Mincle expression was measured in human liver samples from cirrhotic patients and donors collected at liver transplantation and in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Human results were confirmed in rodent models of cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). In these models, the role of mincle was investigated in liver samples as well as in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC), tissues from the kidney, spleen, small intestine, and heart. Additionally, mincle activation was stimulated in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by treatment with mincle agonist trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB). In human NASH, mincle is upregulated with increased collagen production. In ApoE deficient mice fed high-fat western diet (NASH model), mincle activation significantly increases hepatic collagen production. In human cirrhosis, mincle expression is also significantly upregulated. Furthermore, mincle expression is associated with the stage of chronic liver disease. This could be confirmed in rat models of cirrhosis and ACLF. ACLF was induced by LPS injection in cirrhotic rats. While mincle expression and downstream signaling via FC receptor gamma, SYK, and NF-kappa-B are upregulated in the liver, they are downregulated in PBMCs of these rats. Although mincle expressed on macrophages might be beneficial for intestinal barrier integrity, it seems to contribute to inflammation and fibrosis once the intestinal barrier becomes leaky in advanced stages of chronic liver disease.

Keywords: ACLF, Bacterial translocation, Fibrosis, Inflammation, NASH

Praktiknjo, M., Djayadi, N., Mohr, R., Schierwagen, R., Bischoff, J., Dold, L., Pohlmann, A., Schwarze-Zander, C., Wasmuth, J. C., Boesecke, C., Rockstroh, J. K., Trebicka, J., (2019). Fibroblast growth factor 21 is independently associated with severe hepatic steatosis in non-obese HIV-infected patients Liver International 39, (8), 1514-1520

Background: Severe hepatic steatosis shows a high prevalence and contributes to morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Known risk factors include obesity, dyslipidaemia and features of metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is involved with hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate FGF-21 as a biomarker for severe hepatic steatosis in non-obese HIV-infected patients. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, monocentric study including HIV-infected out-patients. Hepatic steatosis was measured via controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) using FibroScan 502 touch (ECHOSENS, France). Severe hepatic steatosis was defined at CAP ≥ 253 dB/m. Peripheral blood samples were collected and plasma was analysed for FGF-21. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from patient's health records. Results: In total, 73 non-obese HIV-monoinfected patients were included in this study. Prevalence of severe hepatic steatosis was 41%. Patients with severe hepatic steatosis showed significantly higher levels of FGF-21. Univariate analysis revealed FGF-21, BMI, hyperlipidaemia, ALT levels and arterial hypertension as significant, while multivariate analysis showed only FGF-21, arterial hypertension and ALT levels as significant independent risk factors for severe hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: This study presents FGF-21 as an independent and stronger predictor of severe hepatic steatosis than blood lipids in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, arterial hypertension and ALT levels predict severe steatosis even in non-obese HIV-monoinfected patients. Furthermore, this study supports existing metabolic risk factors and expands them to non-obese HIV-infected patients.

Keywords: BMI, CAP, Dyslipidaemia, FGF-21, Fibroscan, HIV, Hyperlipidaemia, Liver, NAFLD, NASH, Steatosis

De Chiara, F., Checcllo, C. U., Ramón-Azcón, J., (2019). High protein diet and metabolic plasticity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Myths and truths Nutrients 11, (12), 2985

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipid accumulation within the liver affecting 1 in 4 people worldwide. As the new silent killer of the twenty-first century, NAFLD impacts on both the request and the availability of new liver donors. The liver is the first line of defense against endogenous and exogenous metabolites and toxins. It also retains the ability to switch between different metabolic pathways according to food type and availability. This ability becomes a disadvantage in obesogenic societies where most people choose a diet based on fats and carbohydrates while ignoring vitamins and fiber. The chronic exposure to fats and carbohydrates induces dramatic changes in the liver zonation and triggers the development of insulin resistance. Common believes on NAFLD and different diets are based either on epidemiological studies, or meta-analysis, which are not controlled evidences; in most of the cases, they are biased on test-subject type and their lifestyles. The highest success in reverting NAFLD can be attributed to diets based on high protein instead of carbohydrates. In this review, we discuss the impact of NAFLD on body metabolic plasticity. We also present a detailed analysis of the most recent studies that evaluate high-protein diets in NAFLD with a special focus on the liver and the skeletal muscle protein metabolisms.

Keywords: High protein diet, Low carbohydrates, NAFLD, NASH, Physical activity

Brol, M. J., Rösch, F., Schierwagen, R., Magdaleno, F., Uschner, F. E., Manekeller, S., Queck, A., Schwarzkopf, K., Odenthal, M., Drebber, U., Thiele, M., Lingohr, P., Plamper, A., Kristiansen, G., Lotersztajn, S., Krag, A., Klein, S., Rheinwalt, K. P., Trebicka, J., Galaxy, Consortium, (2019). Combination of CCL4 with alcoholic and metabolic injuries mimics human liver fibrosis American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 317, (2), G182-G194

Metabolic and alcoholic liver injuries result in nonalcoholic (NAFLD) or alcoholic (ALD) fatty liver disease, respectively. In particular, presence of fibrosis in NAFLD and ALD requires treatment, but development of drugs is hampered by the lack of suitable models with significant fibrosis. The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) liver fibrosis model does not reflect human NAFLD or ALD, but CCl4 may serve as a fibrosis accelerator in addition to another injury. Ethanol in drinking water (16%) or Western diet (WD) were administered for 7 wk in mice either alone or in combination with CCl4 intoxications. Extent of fibrosis, steatosis, and inflammation was assessed by histology, transcription, and biochemistry. Furthermore, transcription of fibrosis, proliferation, and inflammation-related genes was studied on human liver samples with fibrosis resulting from hepatitis C virus infection (n = 7), NAFLD (n = 8), or ALD (n = 7). WD or ethanol alone induced only mild steatosis and inflammation. Combination of CCl4 and WD induced the most severe steatosis together with significant liver fibrosis and moderate inflammation. Combination of CCl4 and ethanol induced the strongest inflammation, with significant liver fibrosis and moderate steatosis. The relationship pattern between fibrosis, proliferation, and inflammation of human ALD was mostly similar in mice treated with CCl4 and ethanol. The combination of CCl4 intoxication with WD validates previous data suggesting it as an appropriate model for human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Especially, CCl4 plus ethanol for 7 wk induces ALD in mice, providing a model suitable for further basic research and drug testing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Alcoholic fatty liver disease with significant fibrosis is generated within 7 wk using carbon tetrachloride as a fibrosis accelerator and administering gradually ethanol (up to 16%) in mice. The similarity in the pattern of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis involved in alcoholic fatty liver disease to those of the human condition renders this mouse model suitable as a preclinical model for drug development.

Keywords: ASH, Liver fibrosis, NAFLD, NASH

Stocchi, A., Lauke, B., Giannotti, M. I., Vázquez, A., Bernal, C., (2013). Tensile response and fracture and failure behavior of jute fabrics-flyash-vinylester hybrid composites Fibers and Polymers , 14, (2), 285-291

In this work, hybrid materials consisting on a vinylester matrix simultaneaously reinforced with jute woven fabrics and flyash particles were prepared. The tensile response and the fracture and failure behavior of these hybrid composites were investigated. Thermal stability of these materials was also studied. The aim was to obtain an environmentally friendly hybrid material with a good balance of tensile and fracture properties at relatively low cost. The effect of a novel treatment for the jute fabrics on the hybrids mechanical and fracture properties was investigated. The best balance of tensile and fracture properties was obtained for the hybrid consisting of fabrics treated with alkali under stress and fly ashes which also exhibited relatively high thermal stability.

Keywords: Natural fibers, Fly ash, Hybrid composite, Mechanical properties, Fracture

Banos, R. C., Vivero, A., Aznar, S., Garcia, J., Pons, M., Madrid, C., Juarez, A., (2009). Differential regulation of horizontally acquired and core genome genes by the bacterial modulator H-NS PLoS Genetics 5, (6), 8

Horizontal acquisition of DNA by bacteria dramatically increases genetic diversity and hence successful bacterial colonization of several niches, including the human host. A relevant issue is how this newly acquired DNA interacts and integrates in the regulatory networks of the bacterial cell. The global modulator H-NS targets both core genome and HGT genes and silences gene expression in response to external stimuli such as osmolarity and temperature. Here we provide evidence that H-NS discriminates and differentially modulates core and HGT DNA. As an example of this, plasmid R27-encoded H-NS protein has evolved to selectively silence HGT genes and does not interfere with core genome regulation. In turn, differential regulation of both gene lineages by resident chromosomal H-NS requires a helper protein: the Hha protein. Tight silencing of HGT DNA is accomplished by H-NS-Hha complexes. In contrast, core genes are modulated by H-NS homoligomers. Remarkably, the presence of Hha-like proteins is restricted to the Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, conjugative plasmids encoding H-NS variants have hitherto been isolated only from members of the family. Thus, the H-NS system in enteric bacteria presents unique evolutionary features. The capacity to selectively discriminate between core and HGT DNA may help to maintain horizontally transmitted DNA in silent form and may give these bacteria a competitive advantage in adapting to new environments, including host colonization.

Keywords: 2A strain 2457T, Escherichia-Coli, Salmonella-Enterica, Protein, DNA, Expression, Binding, HHA, Shigella, Plasmid