by Keyword: Nontuberculous mycobacteria

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Bach-Griera, Marc, Campo-Pérez, Víctor, Barbosa, Sandra, Traserra, Sara, Guallar-Garrido, Sandra, Moya-Andérico, Laura, Herrero-Abadía, Paula, Luquin, Marina, Rabanal, Rosa Maria, Torrents, Eduard, Julián, Esther, (2020). Mycolicibacterium brumae is a safe and non-toxic immunomodulatory agent for cancer treatment Vaccines 8, (2), 198

Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy remains the gold-standard treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, even though half of the patients develop adverse events to this therapy. On exploring BCG-alternative therapies, Mycolicibacterium brumae, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, has shown outstanding anti-tumor and immunomodulatory capabilities. As no infections due to M. brumae in humans, animals, or plants have been described, the safety and/or toxicity of this mycobacterium have not been previously addressed. In the present study, an analysis was made of M. brumae- and BCG-intravenously-infected severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, M. brumae-intravesically-treated BALB/c mice, and intrahemacoelic-infected-Galleria mellonella larvae. Organs from infected mice and the hemolymph from larvae were processed to count bacterial burden. Blood samples from mice were also taken, and a wide range of hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Finally, histopathological alterations in mouse tissues were evaluated. Our results demonstrate the safety and non-toxic profile of M. brumae. Differences were observed in the biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis between M. brumae and BCG-infected mice, as well as survival curves rates and colony forming units (CFU) counts in both animal models. M. brumae constitutes a safe therapeutic biological agent, overcoming the safety and toxicity disadvantages presented by BCG in both mice and G. mellonella animal models.

Keywords: Bladder cancer, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, BCG, Safety, Galleria mellonella, Mice