by Keyword: Portal hypertension

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Torner, M., Mangal, A., Scharnagl, H., Jansen, C., Praktiknjo, M., Queck, A., Gu, W., Schierwagen, R., Lehmann, J., Uschner, F. E., Graf, C., Strassburg, C. P., Fernandez, J., Stojakovic, T., Woitas, R., Trebicka, J., (2020). Sex specificity of kidney markers to assess prognosis in cirrhotic patients with TIPS Liver International 40, (1), 186-193

Background & Aims: Renal function assessed by creatinine is a key prognostic factor in cirrhotic patients. However, creatinine is influenced by several factors, rendering interpretation difficult in some situations. This is especially important in early stages of renal dysfunction where renal impairment might not be accompanied by an increase in creatinine. Other parameters, such as cystatin C (CysC) and beta‐trace protein (BTP), have been evaluated to fill this gap. However, none of these studies have considered the role of the patient's sex. The present study analysed CysC and BTP to evaluate their prognostic value and differentiate them according to sex. Patients and methods: CysC and BTP were measured in 173 transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)-patients from the NEPTUN-STUDY(NCT03628807) and analysed their relationship with mortality and sex. Propensity score for age, MELD, etiology and TIPS indication was used. Results: Cystatin C and BTP showed excellent correlations with creatinine values at baseline and follow-up. CysC was an independent predictor of overall mortality (HR = 1.66(1.33-2.06)) with an AUC of 0.75 and identified a cut-off of 1.55 mg/L in the whole cohort. Interestingly, CysC was significantly lower in females, also after propensity score matching. In males, the only independent predictor was the creatinine level (HR = 1.54(1.25-1.58)), while in females CysC levels independently predicted mortality (HR = 3.17(1.34-7.52)). Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time that in TIPS-patients creatinine predicts mortality in males better than in females, whereas CysC is a better predictor of mortality in females. These results may influence future clinical decisions on therapeutic options for example, allocation for liver transplantation in TIPS-patients.

Keywords: Beta-trace protein, Cirrhosis, Cystatin C, Portal hypertension, Renal function

Cremonese, C., Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F. E., Torres, S., Tyc, O., Ortiz, C., Schulz, M., Queck, A., Kristiansen, G., Bader, M., Sauerbruch, T., Weiskirchen, R., Walther, T., Trebicka, J., Klein, S., (2020). Short-term western diet aggravates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with portal hypertension in TGR(mREN2)27 rats International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, (9), 3308

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is gaining in importance and is linked to obesity. Especially, the development of fibrosis and portal hypertension in NAFLD patients requires treatment. Transgenic TGR(mREN2)27 rats overexpressing mouse renin spontaneously develop NAFLD with portal hypertension but without obesity. This study investigated the additional role of obesity in this model on the development of portal hypertension and fibrosis. Obesity was induced in twelve-week old TGR(mREN2)27 rats after receiving Western diet (WD) for two or four weeks. Liver fibrosis was assessed using standard techniques. Hepatic expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagen type Iα1, α-smooth muscle actin, and the macrophage markers Emr1, as well as the chemoattractant Ccl2, interleukin-1β (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were analyzed. Assessment of portal and systemic hemodynamics was performed using the colored microsphere technique. As expected, WD induced obesity and liver fibrosis as confirmed by Sirius Red and Oil Red O staining. The expression of the monocyte-macrophage markers, Emr1, Ccl2, IL1β and TNFα were increased during feeding of WD, indicating infiltration of macrophages into the liver, even though this increase was statistically not significant for the EGF module-containing mucin-like receptor (Emr1) mRNA expression levels. Of note, portal pressure increased with the duration of WD compared to animals that received a normal chow. Besides obesity, WD feeding increased systemic vascular resistance reflecting systemic endothelial and splanchnic vascular dysfunction. We conclude that transgenic TGR(mREN2)27 rats are a suitable model to investigate NAFLD development with liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Tendency towards elevated expression of Emr1 is associated with macrophage activity point to a significant role of macrophages in NAFLD pathogenesis, probably due to a shift of the renin–angiotensin system towards a higher activation of the classical pathway. The hepatic injury induced by WD in TGR(mREN2)27 rats is suitable to evaluate different stages of fibrosis and portal hypertension in NAFLD with obesity.

Keywords: ADGRE1, EMR1, F4/80, Immunity, Liver fibrosis, Macrophage, NAFLD, Portal hypertension, TGR(mREN2)27, Western diet

Praktiknjo, M., Simón-Talero, M., Römer, J., Roccarina, D., Martínez, J., Lampichler, K., Baiges, A., Low, G., Llop, E., Maurer, M. H., Zipprich, A., Triolo, M., Maleux, G., Fialla, A. D., Dam, C., Vidal-González, J., Majumdar, A., Picón, C., Toth, D., Darnell, A., Abraldes, J. G., López, M., Jansen, C., Chang, J., Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F., Kukuk, G., Meyer, C., Thomas, D., Wolter, K., Strassburg, C. P., Laleman, W., La Mura, V., Ripoll, C., Berzigotti, A., Calleja, J. L., Tandon, P., Hernandez-Gea, V., Reiberger, T., Albillos, A., Tsochatzis, E. A., Krag, A., Genescà , J., Trebicka, J., (2020). Total area of spontaneous portosystemic shunts independently predicts hepatic encephalopathy and mortality in liver cirrhosis Journal of Hepatology 72, (6), 1140-1150

Background & Aims: Spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSS) frequently develop in liver cirrhosis. Recent data suggested that the presence of a single large SPSS is associated with complications, especially overt hepatic encephalopathy (oHE). However, the presence of >1 SPSS is common. This study evaluates the impact of total cross-sectional SPSS area (TSA) on outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: In this retrospective international multicentric study, CT scans of 908 cirrhotic patients with SPSS were evaluated for TSA. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Each detected SPSS radius was measured and TSA calculated. One-year survival was the primary endpoint and acute decompensation (oHE, variceal bleeding, ascites) was the secondary endpoint. Results: A total of 301 patients (169 male) were included in the training cohort. Thirty percent of all patients presented with >1 SPSS. A TSA cut-off of 83 mm2 was used to classify patients with small or large TSA (S-/L-TSA). Patients with L-TSA presented with higher model for end-stage liver disease score (11 vs. 14) and more commonly had a history of oHE (12% vs. 21%, p <0.05). During follow-up, patients with L-TSA experienced more oHE episodes (33% vs. 47%, p <0.05) and had lower 1-year survival than those with S-TSA (84% vs. 69%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis identified L-TSA (hazard ratio 1.66; 95% CI 1.02–2.70, p <0.05) as an independent predictor of mortality. An independent multicentric validation cohort of 607 patients confirmed that patients with L-TSA had lower 1-year survival (77% vs. 64%, p <0.001) and more oHE development (35% vs. 49%, p <0.001) than those with S-TSA. Conclusion: This study suggests that TSA >83 mm2 increases the risk for oHE and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Our results support the clinical use of TSA/SPSS for risk stratification and decision-making in the management of patients with cirrhosis. Lay summary: The prevalence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSS) is higher in patients with more advanced chronic liver disease. The presence of more than 1 SPSS is common in advanced chronic liver disease and is associated with the development of hepatic encephalopathy. This study shows that total cross-sectional SPSS area (rather than diameter of the single largest SPSS) predicts survival in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. Our results support the clinical use of total cross-sectional SPSS area for risk stratification and decision-making in the management of SPSS.

Keywords: ACLF, Acute decompensation, Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Ascites, Cirrhosis, Computed tomography, Hepatic encephalopathy, Liver, Portal hypertension, Spontaneous portosystemic shunt, SPSS, TIPS

Trebicka, J., Bastgen, D., Byrtus, J., Praktiknjo, M., Terstiegen, S., Meyer, C., Thomas, D., Fimmers, R., Treitl, M., Euringer, W., Sauerbruch, T., Rössle, M., (2019). Smaller-diameter covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stents are associated with increased survival Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 17, (13), 2793-2799.e1

Background & Aims: We studied the effects of diameter of covered, self-expandable, nitinol stents on survival times of patients with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: We collected data from 185 patients (median age, 55 y; 30% female) who received a covered nitinol stent, from February 2006 through September 2010, using the online multicenter German TIPS registry. TIPS were given to 107 patients for refractory ascites and to 78 patients for variceal bleeding. Patients at risk of hepatic encephalopathy (owing to advanced age, prior episodes) or liver failure (bilirubin level, >3 mg/dL), and bleeding patients receiving variceal embolization at TIPS, received 8-mm stents (n = 53). The remaining patients received 10-mm stents (n = 132). Eighty-one of the 10-mm stents were underdilated using 8-mm dilation balloons. Clinical and biochemical data were collected after TIPS placement at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 1 year, and thereafter every 3 to 6 months. Groups were compared using propensity score analysis. Results: Patients who received 8-mm stents survived significantly longer (34 ± 26 mo) than patients who received 10-mm stents (18 ± 19 mo), regardless of whether they were fully dilated or underdilated. When we compared 10-mm stents with or without underdilation, we found that a significantly higher proportion of patients who received underdilated stents survived for 1 month after TIPS placement (95% vs 84%; P = .03), but not for 3 months (P = .10). In multivariate analysis, 1-year mortality correlated with full dilation of the stent to 10 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.5) and with serum creatinine concentration at baseline (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7). Five-year mortality was associated with use of the 10-mm stents (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4–2.7) and baseline concentration of creatinine (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.6). Conclusions: A smaller stent (nominal diameter of 8 mm, but not underdilation of a 10-mm stent) is associated with a prolonged survival compared with 10-mm stents, independent of liver-specific prognostic criteria.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Comparison, Covered, Portal Hypertension

Lehmann, J., Praktiknjo, M., Nielsen, M. J., Schierwagen, R., Meyer, C., Thomas, D., Violi, F., Strassburg, C. P., Bendtsen, F., Moller, S., Krag, A., Karsdal, M. A., Leeming, D. J., Trebicka, J., (2019). Collagen type IV remodelling gender-specifically predicts mortality in decompensated cirrhosis Liver International 39, (5), 885-893

Background & Aims: Remodelling of extracellular matrix is crucial in progressive liver fibrosis. Collagen type III desposition has been shown in acute decompensation. Extratracellular matrix is compiled of deposition of various components. The role of basement membrane collagen type IV in advanced cirrhosis and acute decompensation is unclear and investigated in this study. Methods: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis from the prospective NEPTUN cohort ( Identifier: NCT03628807), who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure were included. Clinical and laboratory parameters, PRO-C4 and C4M levels were measured in blood samples from portal and hepatic veins just before transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Results: Levels of C4M and PRO-C4 are significantly lower in patients with massive ascites and impaired renal sodium excretion. C4M and PRO-C4 show gender-specific profiles with significantly lower levels in females compared to males. Females with higher C4M levels show higher mortality. By contrast, males with higher C4M levels show lower mortality. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, C4M is an independent predictor of survival in female patients. Conclusion: This study shows that markers of collagen type IV remodelling do not accumulate in severe renal dysfunction. Although collagen type IV degradation markers derive from the liver, portal venous C4M levels are relevant for survival. Moreover, it demonstrates that circulating C4M shows gender-specific profiles, which can independently predict survival in female patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Keywords: ACLF, Acute decompensation, Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Cirrhosis, Collagen type IV, Extracellular matrix remodelling, Gender, Liver, Portal hypertension, Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Klein, S., Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F. E., Trebicka, J., (2017). Mouse and rat models of induction of hepatic fibrosis and assessment of portal hypertension Fibrosis (Methods in Molecular Biology) (ed. Rittié, L.), Humana Press (New York, USA) 1627, 91-116

Portal hypertension either develops due to progressive liver fibrosis or is the consequence of vascular liver diseases such as portal vein thrombosis or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This chapter focuses on different rodent models of liver fibrosis with portal hypertension and also in few non-cirrhotic portal hypertension models. Importantly, after the development of portal hypertension, the proper assessment of drug effects in the portal and systemic circulation should be discussed. The last part of the chapter is dedicated in these techniques to assess the in vivo hemodynamics and the ex vivo techniques of the isolated liver perfusion and vascular contractility.

Keywords: Aortic ring contraction, Bile duct ligation, Carbon tetrachloride, Colored microsphere technique, High-fat diet, Isolated in situ liver perfusion, Methionine-choline-deficient diet, Partial portal vein ligation, Portal hypertension