by Keyword: Robustness

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Lozano-García, M., Nuhic, J., Moxham, J., Rafferty, G. F., Jolley, C. J., Jané, R., (2020). Performance evaluation of fixed sample entropy for lung sound intensity estimation Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 2740-2743

Lung sound (LS) signals are often contaminated by impulsive artifacts that complicate the estimation of lung sound intensity (LSI) using conventional amplitude estimators. Fixed sample entropy (fSampEn) has proven to be robust to cardiac artifacts in myographic respiratory signals. Similarly, fSampEn is expected to be robust to artifacts in LS signals, thus providing accurate LSI estimates. However, the choice of fSampEn parameters depends on the application and fSampEn has not previously been applied to LS signals. This study aimed to perform an evaluation of the performance of the most relevant fSampEn parameters on LS signals, and to propose optimal fSampEn parameters for LSI estimation. Different combinations of fSampEn parameters were analyzed in LS signals recorded in a heterogeneous population of healthy subjects and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during loaded breathing. The performance of fSampEn was assessed by means of its cross-covariance with flow signals, and optimal fSampEn parameters for LSI estimation were proposed.

Keywords: Large scale integration, Lung, Estimation, Entropy, Loading, Robustness, Diseases

Romero, D., Lázaro, J., Jané, R., Laguna, P., Bailón, R., (2020). A quaternion-based approach to estimate respiratory rate from the vectorcardiogram Computers in Cardiology (CinC) 2020 Computing in Cardiology , IEEE (Rimini, Italy) 47, 1-4

A novel ECG-derived respiration (EDR) approach is presented to efficiently estimate the respiratory rate. It combines spatial rotations and magnitude variations of the heart's electrical vector due to respiration. Orthogonal leads X, Y and Z from 10 volunteers were analyzed during a tilt table test. The largest vector magnitude (VM) within each QRS loop was assessed, and its 3D coordinates were converted into unit quaternion qb. Angular distances between these quaternions and the axes of the reference coordinate system, θ x , θ y and θ z , were then computed as EDR signals to track their relative variations caused by respiration. The respiratory rate was estimated on the spectrum of individual EDR signals obtained from the angular distances and VM time-series, but also on EDR signals obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). Relative errors (eR) to the reference respiratory signal exhibited relatively low values. The combination of EDR signals' spectrum {θ X ,θ Y, θ Z , VM} (eR=0.63±4.15%) and individual signals derived from θ X (e R =0.46±8.22%) and PCA (eR=0.36±6.58%) achieved the overall best results. The proposed method represents a computationally efficient alternative to other EDR approaches, but its robustness should be further investigated. The method could be enhanced if combined with other features tracking morphological changes induced by respiration.

Keywords: Heart, Three-dimensional displays, Quaternions, Robustness, Computational efficiency, Cardiology, Principal component analysis

Amil, A. F., Maffei, G., Puigbò, J. Y., Arsiwalla, X. D., Verschure, P., (2019). Robust postural stabilization with a biomimetic hierarchical control architecture Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems 8th International Conference, Living Machines 2019 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science) , Springer, Cham (Nara, Japan) 11556, 321-324

Fast online corrections during anticipatory movements are a signature of robustness in biological motor control. In this regard, a previous study suggested that anticipatory postural control can be recast as a sensory-sensory predictive process, where hierarchically connected cerebellar microcircuits reflect the causal sequence of events preceding a postural disturbance. Hence, error monitoring signals from higher sensory layers inform lower layers about violations of expectations, affording fast corrections when the normal sequence is broken. Here we generalize this insight and prove that the proposed hierarchical control architecture can deal with different types of alterations in the causal structure of the environment, therefore extending the limits of performance.

Keywords: Anticipatory control, Cerebellum, Control architecture, Robustness

Marco, Santiago, (2014). The need for external validation in machine olfaction: emphasis on health-related applications Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Springer Berlin Heidelberg 406, (16), 3941-3956

Over the last two decades, electronic nose research has produced thousands of research works. Many of them were describing the ability of the e-nose technology to solve diverse applications in domains ranging from food technology to safety, security, or health. It is, in fact, in the biomedical field where e-nose technology is finding a research niche in the last years. Although few success stories exist, most described applications never found the road to industrial or clinical exploitation. Most described methodologies were not reliable and were plagued by numerous problems that prevented practical application beyond the lab. This work emphasizes the need of external validation in machine olfaction. I describe some statistical and methodological pitfalls of the e-nose practice and I give some best practice recommendations for researchers in the field.

Keywords: Chemical sensor arrays, Pattern recognition, Chemometrics, Electronic noses, Robustness, Signal and data processing