by Keyword: Simplified ELISA

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de la Serna, E., Arias-Alpízar, K., Borgheti-Cardoso, L. N., Sanchez-Cano, A., Sulleiro, E., Zarzuela, F., Bosch-Nicolau, P., Salvador, F., Molina, I., Ramírez, M., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Sánchez-Montalvá, A., Baldrich, E., (2021). Detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1 h using a simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Analytica Chimica Acta 1152

Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by protists of the genus Plasmodium, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Analytical methodologies and efficient drugs exist for the early detection and treatment of malaria, and yet this disease continues infecting millions of people and claiming several hundred thousand lives each year. One of the reasons behind this failure to control the disease is that the standard method for malaria diagnosis, microscopy, is time-consuming and requires trained personnel. Alternatively, rapid diagnostic tests, which have become common for point-of-care testing thanks to their simplicity of use, tend to be insufficiently sensitive and reliable, and PCR, which is sensitive, is too complex and expensive for massive population screening. In this work, we report a sensitive simplified ELISA for the quantitation of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-LDH), which is capable of detecting malaria in 45–60 min. Assay development was founded in the selection of high-performance antibodies, implementation of a poly-horseradish peroxidase (polyHRP) signal amplifier, and optimization of whole-blood sample pre-treatment. The simplified ELISA achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.11 ng mL−1 and 0.37 ng mL−1, respectively, in lysed whole blood, and an LOD comparable to that of PCR in Plasmodium in vitro cultures (0.67 and 1.33 parasites μL−1 for ELISA and PCR, respectively). Accordingly, the developed immunoassay represents a simple and effective diagnostic tool for P. falciparum malaria, with a time-to-result of <60 min and sensitivity similar to the reference PCR, but easier to implement in low-resource settings. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Malaria quantitative diagnosis, Plasmodium culture, Plasmodium LDH, polyHRP signal amplifier, Simplified ELISA