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Mallafré-Muro, Celia, Llambrich, Maria, Cumeras, Raquel, Pardo, Antonio, Brezmes, Jesús, Marco, Santiago, Gumà , Josep, (2021). Comprehensive volatilome and metabolome signatures of colorectal cancer in urine: A systematic review and meta-analysis Cancers 13, (11), 2534

To increase compliance with colorectal cancer screening programs and to reduce the recommended screening age, cheaper and easy non-invasiveness alternatives to the fecal immunochemical test should be provided. Following the PRISMA procedure of studies that evaluated the metabolome and volatilome signatures of colorectal cancer in human urine samples, an exhaustive search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus found 28 studies that met the required criteria. There were no restrictions on the query for the type of study, leading to not only colorectal cancer samples versus control comparison but also polyps versus control and prospective studies of surgical effects, CRC staging and comparisons of CRC with other cancers. With this systematic review, we identified up to 244 compounds in urine samples (3 shared compounds between the volatilome and metabolome), and 10 of them were relevant in more than three articles. In the meta-analysis, nine studies met the criteria for inclusion, and the results combining the case-control and the pre-/post-surgery groups, eleven compounds were found to be relevant. Four upregulated metabolites were identified, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-dopa, L-histidinol, and N1, N12-diacetylspermine and seven downregulated compounds were identified, pyruvic acid, hydroquinone, tartaric acid, and hippuric acid as metabolites and butyraldehyde, ether, and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene as volatiles.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, Metabolomics, Volatilomics, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Urine