by Keyword: Biomedical signal processing
Espinoso A, Andrzejak RG, (2022). Phase irregularity: A conceptually simple and efficient approach to characterize electroencephalographic recordings from epilepsy patients Physical Review e 105, 34212
The severe neurological disorder epilepsy affects almost 1% of the world population. For patients who suffer from pharmacoresistant focal-onset epilepsy, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings are essential for the localization of the brain area where seizures start. Apart from the visual inspection of the recordings, quantitative EEG signal analysis techniques proved to be useful for this purpose. Among other features, regularity versus irregularity and phase coherence versus phase independence allowed characterizing brain dynamics from the measured EEG signals. Can phase irregularities also characterize brain dynamics? To address this question, we use the univariate coefficient of phase velocity variation, defined as the ratio of phase velocity standard deviation and the mean phase velocity. Beyond that, as a bivariate measure we use the classical mean phase coherence to quantify the degree of phase locking. All phase-based measures are combined with surrogates to test null hypotheses about the dynamics underlying the signals. In the first part of our analysis, we use the Rössler model system to study our approach under controlled conditions. In the second part, we use the Bern-Barcelona EEG database which consists of focal and nonfocal signals extracted from seizure-free recordings. Focal signals are recorded from brain areas where the first seizure EEG signal changes can be detected, and nonfocal signals are recorded from areas that are not involved in the seizure at its onset. Our results show that focal signals have less phase variability and more phase coherence than nonfocal signals. Once combined with surrogates, the mean phase velocity proved to have the highest discriminative power between focal and nonfocal signals. In conclusion, conceptually simple and easy to compute phase-based measures can help to detect features induced by epilepsy from EEG signals. This holds not only for the classical mean phase coherence but even more so for univariate measures of phase irregularity. © 2022 American Physical Society.
JTD Keywords: brain, entropy, epileptogenic networks, functional connectivity, hilbert transform, seizure onset, surrogate data, synchronization, time-series, Biomedical signal processing, Brain areas, Brain dynamics, Dynamics, Electroencephalographic signals, Electroencephalography, Electrophysiology, Intracranial eeg signals, Localisation, Neurological disorders, Neurology, Phase based, Phase coherence, Signal detection, Simple++, Univariate, Velocity, World population
Castillo-Escario, Yolanda, Kumru, Hatice, Ferrer-Lluis, Ignasi, Vidal, Joan, Jané, Raimon, (2021). Detection of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury Using a Smartphone Sensors 21,
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which can lead to serious comorbidities and impact patients’ recovery and quality of life. However, sleep tests are rarely performed on SCI patients, given their multiple health needs and the cost and complexity of diagnostic equipment. The objective of this study was to use a novel smartphone system as a simple non-invasive tool to monitor SDB in SCI patients. We recorded pulse oximetry, acoustic, and accelerometer data using a smartphone during overnight tests in 19 SCI patients and 19 able-bodied controls. Then, we analyzed these signals with automatic algorithms to detect desaturation, apnea, and hypopnea events and monitor sleep position. The apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher in SCI patients than controls (25 ± 15 vs. 9 ± 7, p < 0.001). We found that 63% of SCI patients had moderate-to-severe SDB (AHI ? 15) in contrast to 21% of control subjects. Most SCI patients slept predominantly in supine position, but an increased occurrence of events in supine position was only observed for eight patients. This study highlights the problem of SDB in SCI and provides simple cost-effective sleep monitoring tools to facilitate the detection, understanding, and management of SDB in SCI patients.
JTD Keywords: apnea syndrome, biomedical signal processing, individuals, mhealth, monitoring, nasal resistance, people, position, prevalence, questionnaire, sample, sleep apnea, sleep position, sleep-disordered breathing, smartphone, time, Apnea-hypopnea indices, Biomedical signal processing, Biomedical signals processing, Cost effectiveness, Diagnosis, Mhealth, Monitoring, Noninvasive medical procedures, Oximeters, Oxygen-saturation, Patient rehabilitation, Simple++, Sleep apnea, Sleep position, Sleep research, Sleep-disordered breathing, Smart phones, Smartphone, Smartphones, Spinal cord injury, Spinal cord injury patients
Ferrer-Lluis I, Castillo-Escario Y, Montserrat JM, Jané R, (2021). SleepPos app: An automated smartphone application for angle based high resolution sleep position monitoring and treatment Sensors 21,
Poor sleep quality or disturbed sleep is associated with multiple health conditions. Sleep position affects the severity and occurrence of these complications, and positional therapy is one of the less invasive treatments to deal with them. Sleep positions can be self-reported, which is unreliable, or determined by using specific devices, such as polysomnography, polygraphy or cameras, that can be expensive and difficult to employ at home. The aim of this study is to determine how smartphones could be used to monitor and treat sleep position at home. We divided our research into three tasks: (1) develop an Android smartphone application (‘SleepPos’ app) which monitors angle-based high-resolution sleep position and allows to simultaneously apply positional treatment; (2) test the smartphone application at home coupled with a pulse oximeter; and (3) explore the potential of this tool to detect the positional occurrence of desaturation events. The results show how the ‘SleepPos’ app successfully determined the sleep position and revealed positional patterns of occurrence of desaturation events. The ‘SleepPos’ app also succeeded in applying positional therapy and preventing the subjects from sleeping in the supine sleep position. This study demonstrates how smartphones are capable of reliably monitoring high-resolution sleep position and provide useful clinical information about the positional occurrence of desaturation events.
JTD Keywords: accelerometry, android, apnea patients, app, association, biomedical signal processing, management, mhealth, monitoring, pathophysiology, pilot mhealth, questionnaire, sleep position, smartphone, supine position, time, Accelerometry, Android, App, Biomedical signal processing, Mhealth, Monitoring, Sleep position, Smart-phone, Smartphone, Tennis ball technique
Ferrer-Lluis I, Castillo-Escario Y, Montserrat JM, Jané R, (2021). Enhanced monitoring of sleep position in sleep apnea patients: Smartphone triaxial accelerometry compared with video-validated position from polysomnography Sensors 21,
Poor sleep quality is a risk factor for multiple mental, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. Certain sleep positions or excessive position changes can be related to some diseases and poor sleep quality. Nevertheless, sleep position is usually classified into four discrete values: supine, prone, left and right. An increase in sleep position resolution is necessary to better assess sleep position dynamics and to interpret more accurately intermediate sleep positions. This research aims to study the feasibility of smartphones as sleep position monitors by (1) developing algorithms to retrieve the sleep position angle from smartphone accelerometry; (2) monitoring the sleep position angle in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); (3) comparing the discretized sleep angle versus the four classic sleep positions obtained by the video-validated polysomnography (PSG); and (4) analyzing the presence of positional OSA (pOSA) related to its sleep angle of occurrence. Results from 19 OSA patients reveal that a higher resolution sleep position would help to better diagnose and treat patients with position-dependent diseases such as pOSA. They also show that smartphones are promising mHealth tools for enhanced position monitoring at hospitals and home, as they can provide sleep position with higher resolution than the gold-standard video-validated PSG.
JTD Keywords: accelerometry, actigraphy, association, biomedical signal processing, index, latency, mhealth, monitoring, pathophysiology, quality, questionnaire, score, sleep apnea, sleep position, smartphone, time, Accelerometry, Biomedical signal processing, Mhealth, Monitoring, Sleep apnea, Sleep position, Smartphone, Supine position
Ferrer-Lluís, I., Castillo-Escario, Y., Montserrat, J. M., Jané, R., (2020). Analysis of smartphone triaxial accelerometry for monitoring sleep disordered breathing and sleep position at home IEEE Access 8, 71231 - 71244
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder in which repetitive upper airway obstructive events occur during sleep. These events can induce hypoxia, which is a risk factor for multiple cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. OSA is also known to be position-dependent in some patients, which is referred to as positional OSA (pOSA). Screening for pOSA is necessary in order to design more personalized and effective treatment strategies. In this article, we propose analyzing accelerometry signals, recorded with a smartphone, to detect and monitor OSA at home. Our objectives were to: (1) develop an algorithm for detecting thoracic movement associated with disordered breathing events; (2) compare the performance of smartphones as OSA monitoring tools with a type 3 portable sleep monitor; and (3) explore the feasibility of using smartphone accelerometry to retrieve reliable patient sleep position data and assess pOSA. Accelerometry signals were collected through simultaneous overnight acquisition using both devices with 13 subjects. The smartphone tool showed a high degree of concordance compared to the portable device and succeeded in estimating the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and classifying the severity level in most subjects. To assess the agreement between the two systems, an event-by-event comparison was performed, which found a sensitivity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 80%. It was also possible to identify pOSA by determining the ratio of events occurring in a specific position versus the time spent in that position during the night. These novel results suggest that smartphones are promising mHealth tools for OSA and pOSA monitoring at home.
JTD Keywords: Accelerometry, Biomedical signal processing, mHealth, Monitoring, Sleep apnea, Sleep position, Smartphone
Castillo-Escario, Y., Ferrer-Lluis, I., Montserrat, J. M., Jané, R., (2019). Entropy analysis of acoustic signals recorded with a smartphone for detecting apneas and hypopneas: A comparison with a commercial system for home sleep apnea diagnosis IEEE Access 7, 128224-128241
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disease, but most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated. Here we propose analyzing smartphone audio signals for screening OSA patients at home. Our objectives were to: (1) develop an algorithm for detecting silence events and classifying them into apneas or hypopneas; (2) evaluate the performance of this system; and (3) compare the information provided with a type 3 portable sleep monitor, based mainly on nasal airflow. Overnight signals were acquired simultaneously by both systems in 13 subjects (3 healthy subjects and 10 OSA patients). The sample entropy of audio signals was used to identify apnea/hypopnea events. The apnea-hypopnea indices predicted by the two systems presented a very high degree of concordance and the smartphone correctly detected and stratified all the OSA patients. An event-by-event comparison demonstrated good agreement between silence events and apnea/hypopnea events in the reference system (Sensitivity = 76%, Positive Predictive Value = 82%). Most apneas were detected (89%), but not so many hypopneas (61%). We observed that many hypopneas were accompanied by snoring, so there was no sound reduction. The apnea/hypopnea classification accuracy was 70%, but most discrepancies resulted from the inability of the nasal cannula of the reference device to record oral breathing. We provided a spectral characterization of oral and nasal breathing to correct this effect, and the classification accuracy increased to 82%. This novel knowledge from acoustic signals may be of great interest for clinical practice to develop new non-invasive techniques for screening and monitoring OSA patients at home.
JTD Keywords: Sleep apnea, Acoustics, Monitoring, Entropy, Sensors, Microphones, Acoustics, Biomedical signal processing, mHealth, Monitoring, Sleep apnea, Smartphone