by Keyword: Blood–brain barrier

Perxés Perich M, Palma-Florez S, Solé C, Goberna-Ferrón S, Samitier J, Gómez-Romero P, Mir M, Lagunas A, (2023). Polyoxometalate-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit β-Amyloid Aggregation and Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier in a µphysiological Model Nanomaterials 13, 2697

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a combination of several neuropathological hallmarks, such as extracellular aggregates of beta amyloid (Aβ). Numerous alternatives have been studied for inhibiting Aβ aggregation but, at this time, there are no effective treatments available. Here, we developed the tri-component nanohybrid system AuNPs@POM@PEG based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) covered with polyoxometalates (POMs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this work, AuNPs@POM@PEG demonstrated the inhibition of the formation of amyloid fibrils, showing a 75% decrease in Aβ aggregation in vitro. As it is a potential candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of AuNPs@POM@PEG and its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We achieved a stable nanosystem that is non-cytotoxic below 2.5 nM to human neurovascular cells. The brain permeability of AuNPs@POM@PEG was analyzed in an in vitro microphysiological model of the BBB (BBB-on-a-chip), containing 3D human neurovascular cell co-cultures and microfluidics. The results show that AuNPs@POM@PEG was able to cross the brain endothelial barrier in the chip and demonstrated that POM does not affect the barrier integrity, giving the green light to further studies into this system as a nanotherapeutic.

JTD Keywords: beta-amyloid, blood-brain barrier organ-on-a-chip, cellular uptake, citrate, cytotoxicity, electrocatalytic reduction, gold nanoparticles, hypothesis, nanorods, polyoxometalates, size, stability, surface, Alzheimers-disease, Blood–brain barrier organ-on-a-chip, Gold nanoparticles, Nanovehicle, Polyoxometalates, Β-amyloid

Loeck M, Placci M, Muro S, (2023). Effect of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in type A Niemann-Pick disease on the transport of therapeutic nanocarriers across the blood-brain barrier Drug Delivery And Translational Research

ASM deficiency in Niemann-Pick disease type A results in aberrant cellular accumulation of sphingomyelin, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and early death. There is no available treatment because enzyme replacement therapy cannot surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanocarriers (NCs) targeted across the BBB via transcytosis might help; yet, whether ASM deficiency alters transcytosis remains poorly characterized. We investigated this using model NCs targeted to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), transferrin receptor (TfR), or plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV1) in ASM-normal vs. ASM-deficient BBB models. Disease differentially changed the expression of all three targets, with ICAM-1 becoming the highest. Apical binding and uptake of anti-TfR NCs and anti-PV1 NCs were unaffected by disease, while anti-ICAM-1 NCs had increased apical binding and decreased uptake rate, resulting in unchanged intracellular NCs. Additionally, anti-ICAM-1 NCs underwent basolateral reuptake after transcytosis, whose rate was decreased by disease, as for apical uptake. Consequently, disease increased the effective transcytosis rate for anti-ICAM-1 NCs. Increased transcytosis was also observed for anti-PV1 NCs, while anti-TfR NCs remained unaffected. A fraction of each formulation trafficked to endothelial lysosomes. This was decreased in disease for anti-ICAM-1 NCs and anti-PV1 NCs, agreeing with opposite transcytosis changes, while it increased for anti-TfR NCs. Overall, these variations in receptor expression and NC transport resulted in anti-ICAM-1 NCs displaying the highest absolute transcytosis in the disease condition. Furthermore, these results revealed that ASM deficiency can differently alter these processes depending on the particular target, for which this type of study is key to guide the design of therapeutic NCs.© 2023. Controlled Release Society.

JTD Keywords: asm deficiency, blood-brain barrier, delivery, determines, drug, endocytosis, enzymes, icam-1, lysosomal storage disease, mechanisms, nanoparticles, natural-history, niemann-pick disease type a, pv-1, receptor-mediated transcytosis, trafficking, transferrin receptor, Asm deficiency, Blood–brain barrier, Drug nanocarriers, Icam-1, Icam-1-targeted nanocarriers, Lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-pick disease type a, Pv-1, Receptor-mediated transcytosis, Transferrin receptor

Palma-Florez S, López-Canosa A, Moralez-Zavala F, Castaño O, Kogan MJ, Samitier J, Lagunas A, Mir M, (2023). BBB-on-a-chip with integrated micro-TEER for permeability evaluation of multi-functionalized gold nanorods against Alzheimer's disease Journal Of Nanobiotechnology 21, 115

The lack of predictive models that mimic the blood-brain barrier (BBB) hinders the development of effective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models behave differently from humans, are expensive and have ethical constraints. Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) platforms offer several advantages to resembling physiological and pathological conditions in a versatile, reproducible, and animal-free manner. In addition, OoC give us the possibility to incorporate sensors to determine cell culture features such as trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Here, we developed a BBB-on-a-chip (BBB-oC) platform with a TEER measurement system in close distance to the barrier used for the first time for the evaluation of the permeability performance of targeted gold nanorods for theranostics of Alzheimer's disease. GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 is a therapeutic nanosystem previously developed by us consisting of gold nanorods (GNR) functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), angiopep-2 peptide (Ang2) to overcome the BBB and the D1 peptide as beta amyloid fibrillation inhibitor, finally obtaining GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 which showed to be useful for disaggregation of the amyloid in in vitro and in vivo models. In this work, we evaluated its cytotoxicity, permeability, and some indications of its impact on the brain endothelium by employing an animal-free device based on neurovascular human cells.In this work, we fabricated a BBB-oC with human astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells and a TEER measuring system (TEER-BBB-oC) integrated at a micrometric distance of the endothelial barrier. The characterization displayed a neurovascular network and the expression of tight junctions in the endothelium. We produced GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 and determined its non-cytotoxic range (0.05-0.4 nM) for plated cells included in the BBB-oC and confirmed its harmless effect at the highest concentration (0.4 nM) in the microfluidic device. The permeability assays revealed that GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1 cross the BBB and this entry is facilitated by Ang2 peptide. Parallel to the permeability analysis of GNR-PEG-Ang2/D1, an interesting behavior of the TJs expression was observed after its administration probably related to the ligands on the nanoparticle surface.BBB-oC with a novel TEER integrated setup which allow a correct read-out and cell imaging monitoring was proven as a functional and throughput platform to evaluate the brain permeability performance of nanotherapeutics in a physiological environment with human cells, putting forward a viable alternative to animal experimentation.© 2023. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: alzheimer disease (ad), cell-culture, cytotoxicity, endothelial-cells, gold nanoparticles, microfluidic platform, model, organ-on-a-chip (ooc), peptide, tight junction, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer), transport, Alzheimer disease (ad), Blood-brain barrier (bbb), Blood-brain-barrier, Blood–brain barrier (bbb), Gold nanoparticles, Organ-on-a-chip (ooc), Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (teer)

Leite, DM, Seifi, M, Ruiz-Perez, L, Nguemo, F, Plomann, M, Swinny, JD, Battaglia, G, (2022). Syndapin-2 mediated transcytosis of amyloid-beta across the blood brain barrier Brain Commun 4, fcac039

A deficient transport of amyloid-beta across the blood-brain barrier, and its diminished clearance from the brain, contribute to neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, respectively. At the blood-brain barrier, amyloid-beta efflux transport is associated with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. However, the precise mechanisms governing amyloid-beta transport across the blood-brain barrier, in health and disease, remain to be fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 transcytosis occurs through a tuhulation-mediated mechanism stabilized by syndapin-2. Here, we show that syndapin-2 is associated with amyloid-beta clearance via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 across the blood-brain barrier. We further demonstrate that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-beta expression and ageing, are associated with a decline in the native expression of syndapin-2 within the brain endothelium. Our data reveals that syndapin-2-mediated pathway, and its balance with the endosomal sorting, are important for amyloid-beta clearance proposing a measure to evaluate Alzheimer's disease and ageing, as well as a target for counteracting amyloid-beta build-up. Moreover, we provide evidence for the impact of the avidity of amyloid-beta assemblies in their trafficking across the brain endothelium and in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 expression levels, which may affect the overall clearance of amyloid-beta across the blood-brain barrier.

JTD Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-β, blood–brain barrier, syndapin-2, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimers-disease, Amyloid-beta, Apolipoprotein-j, Blood-brain barrier, Clearance, Expression, Membrane invagination, Peptide, Protein, Rab gtpases, Receptor, Syndapin-2, Transport, Tubular transcytosis