by Keyword: Molecular medicine

Martinez-Torres S, Mesquida-Veny F, Del Rio JA, Hervera A, (2023). Injury-induced activation of the endocannabinoid system promotes axon regeneration Iscience 26, 106814

Regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury still remains a challenge, due to the limited regenerative potential of axons after injury. While the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been widely studied for its neuroprotective and analgesic effects, its role in axonal regeneration and during the conditioning lesion remains unexplored. In this study, we observed that a peripheral nerve injury induces axonal regeneration through an increase in the endocannabinoid tone. We also enhanced the regenerative capacity of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons through the inhibition of endocannabinoid degradative enzyme MAGL or a CB1R agonist. Our results suggest that the ECS, via CB1R and PI3K-pAkt pathway activation, plays an important role in promoting the intrinsic regenerative capacity of sensory neurons after injury.© 2023 The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: brain, gene-expression, lesion, nerve, receptors, targets, Clinical neuroscience, Drugs, Endogenous cannabinoid system, Molecular medicine

Klein, S., Kleine, C. E., Pieper, A., Granzow, M., Gautsch, S., Himmit, M., Kahrmann, K., Schierwagen, R., Uschner, F. E., Magdaleno, F., Naoum, M. E., Kristiansen, G., Walther, T., Bader, M., Sauerbruch, T., Trebicka, J., (2019). TGR(mREN2)27 rats develop non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-associated portal hypertension responsive to modulations of Janus-kinase 2 and Mas receptor Scientific Reports 9, (1), 11598

Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. Resulting fibrosis and portal hypertension, as a possible secondary event, may necessitate treatment. Overexpression of mouse renin in the transgenic rat model, TGR(mREN2)27, leads to spontaneous development of NAFLD. Therefore, we used TGR(mREN2)27 rats as a model of NAFLD where we hypothesized increased susceptibility and investigated fibrosis and portal hypertension and associated pathways. 12-week old TGR(mREN2)27 rats received either cholestatic (BDL) or toxic injury (CCl4 inhalation). Portal and systemic hemodynamic assessments were performed using microsphere technique with and without injection of the Janus-Kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor AG490 or the non-peptidic Ang(1-7) agonist, AVE0991. The extent of liver fibrosis was assessed in TGR(mREN2)27 and wild-type rats using standard techniques. Protein and mRNA levels of profibrotic, renin-angiotensin system components were assessed in liver and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatocytes. TGR(mREN2)27 rats developed spontaneous, but mild fibrosis and portal hypertension due to the activation of the JAK2/Arhgef1/ROCK pathway. AG490 decreased migration of HSC and portal pressure in isolated liver perfusions and in vivo. Fibrosis or portal hypertension after cholestatic (BDL) or toxic injury (CCl4) was not aggravated in TGR(mREN2)27 rats, probably due to decreased mouse renin expression in hepatocytes. Interestingly, portal hypertension was even blunted in TGR(mREN2)27 rats (with or without additional injury) by AVE0991. TGR(mREN2)27 rats are a suitable model of spontaneous liver fibrosis and portal hypertension but not with increased susceptibility to liver damage. After additional injury, the animals can be used to evaluate novel therapeutic strategies targeting Mas.

JTD Keywords: Mechanisms of disease, Molecular medicine