by Keyword: systemic inflammation
Schierwagen R, Gu W, Brieger A, Brüne B, Ciesek S, Đikić I, Dimmeler S, Geisslinger G, Greten FR, Hermann E, Hildt E, Kempf VAJ, Klein S, Koch I, Mühl H, Müller V, Peiffer KH, Kestner RI, Piiper A, Rohde G, Scholich K, Schulz MH, Storf H, Toptan T, Vasa-Nicotera M, Vehreschild MJGT, Weigert A, Wild PJ, Zeuzem S, Engelmann C,, Schaefer L, Welsch C, Trebicka J ACLF-I Investigators,, (2023). Pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of acute-to-chronic liver failure American Journal Of Physiology-Cell Physiology 325, C129-C140
Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of all chronic liver diseases and contributes significantly to overall mortality of 2% globally. The age-standardized mortality from liver cirrhosis in Europe is between 10 and 20% and can be explained by not only the development of liver cancer but also the acute deterioration in the patient's overall condition. The development of complications including accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract (variceal bleeding), bacterial infections, or a decrease in brain function (hepatic encephalopathy) define an acute decompensation that requires therapy and often leads to acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) by different precipitating events. However, due to its complexity and organ-spanning nature, the pathogenesis of ACLF is poorly understood, and the common underlying mechanisms leading to the development of organ dysfunction or failure in ACLF are still elusive. Apart from general intensive care interventions, there are no specific therapy options for ACLF. Liver transplantation is often not possible in these patients due to contraindications and a lack of prioritization. In this review, we describe the framework of the ACLF-I project consortium funded by the Hessian Ministry of Higher Education, Research and the Arts (HMWK) based on existing findings and will provide answers to these open questions.
JTD Keywords: 12/15-lipoxygenase, combination, inflammation, interleukin-22, metabolism, mortality, organ failure, portal-hypertension, receptor, regeneration, systemic inflammation, systems medicine, translational hepatology, Decompensated cirrhosis, Organ failure, Systemic inflammation, Systems medicine, Translational hepatology
Trebicka J, (2022). Role of albumin in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis Current Opinion In Gastroenterology 38, 200-205
Albumin has been used primarily as a plasma expander, since it leads to an increase in the circulating blood volume. Current generally recommended indications for albumin therapy in cirrhotic patients are the prevention of circulatory dysfunction after large-volume paracentesis, the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and the management of HRS in combination with vasoconstrictors. Yet, new indications for albumin have been tested in the recent years and are outlined in this short review.New data show that albumin both supports the circulation and reduces systemic inflammation. In addition, to its oncotic function, it acts as an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and immune modulator. These nononcotic properties explain why long-term albumin administration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis may be useful in the prevention of associated complications (acute-on-chronic liver failure, infections). New data show that long-term albumin therapy in patients with cirrhosis and ascites improves survival, prevents complications, simplifies ascites management, and lowers hospitalization rates. The so-called disease-modifying effects of long-term albumin therapy may have a favorable effect on the course of the disease. Nevertheless, the optimal dosage and administration intervals have not yet been finally defined.Albumin therapy is effective in the indications already recommended by the guidelines. A possible extension of the indication for albumin administration in non-SBP infections and as long-term therapy is promising, but should be confirmed by further studies.Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
JTD Keywords: ascites, failure, hepatorenal syndrome, hospitalized-patients, hypothesis, infections, portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, systemic inflammation, Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Human serum-albumin
Trebicka J, Bork P, Krag A, Arumugam M, (2021). Utilizing the gut microbiome in decompensated cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18, 167-180
© 2020, Springer Nature Limited. The human gut microbiome has emerged as a major player in human health and disease. The liver, as the first organ to encounter microbial products that cross the gut epithelial barrier, is affected by the gut microbiome in many ways. Thus, the gut microbiome might play a major part in the development of liver diseases. The common end stage of liver disease is decompensated cirrhosis and the further development towards acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). These conditions have high short-term mortality. There is evidence that translocation of components of the gut microbiota, facilitated by different pathogenic mechanisms such as increased gut epithelial permeability and portal hypertension, is an important driver of decompensation by induction of systemic inflammation, and thereby also ACLF. Elucidating the role of the gut microbiome in the aetiology of decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF deserves further investigation and improvement; and might be the basis for development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this Review, we focus on the possible pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic role of the gut microbiome in decompensation of cirrhosis and progression to ACLF.
JTD Keywords: albumin, decreases intestinal permeability, hepatic-encephalopathy, portal-vein thrombosis, rifaximin improves, secondary bile-acids, systemic inflammation, translocation, venous-pressure gradient, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
Alvarez-Silva, C., Schierwagen, R., Pohlmann, A., Magdaleno, F., Uschner, F. E., Ryan, P., Vehreschild, M. J. G. T., Claria, J., Latz, E., Lelouvier, B., Arumugam, M., Trebicka, J., (2019). Compartmentalization of immune response and microbial translocation in decompensated cirrhosis Frontiers in Immunology 10, 69
Background: Acquired dysfunctional immunity in cirrhosis predisposes patients to frequent bacterial infections, especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), leading to systemic inflammation that is associated with poor outcome. But systemic inflammation can also be found in the absence of a confirmed infection. Detection of bacterial DNA has been investigated as a marker of SBP and as a predictor of prognosis. Data is, however, contradictory. Here we investigated whether levels of IL-6 and IL-8 putatively produced by myeloid cells in ascites are associated with systemic inflammation and whether inflammation depends on the presence of specific bacterial DNA.
Methods and Materials: We enrolled 33 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis from whom we collected paired samples of blood and ascites. IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in serum samples of all patients using ELISA. In a subset of 10 representative patients, bacterial DNA was extracted from ascites and whole blood, followed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.
Results: There were significantly higher levels of IL-6 in ascites fluid compared to blood samples in all patients. Interestingly, IL-6 levels in blood correlated tightly with disease severity and surrogates of systemic inflammation, while IL-6 levels in ascites did not. Moreover, patients with higher blood CRP levels showed greater SBP prevalence compared to patients with lower levels, despite similar positive culture results. Bacterial richness was also significantly higher in ascites compared to the corresponding patient blood. We identified differences in microbial composition and diversity between ascites and blood, but no tight relationship with surrogates of systemic inflammation could be observed.
Discussion: In decompensated cirrhosis, markers of systemic inflammation and microbiota composition seem to be dysregulated in ascites and blood. While a relationship between systemic inflammation and microbiota composition seems to exist in blood, this is not the case for ascites in our hands. These data may suggest compartmentalization of the immune response and interaction of the latter with the microbiota especially in the blood compartment.
JTD Keywords: Acute-on-chronic liver failure, Ascites, Cirrhosis, Cytokines, Microbiome, Myeloid cells, Systemic inflammation