by Keyword: Biofabrication
Herrero-Gomez, A, Azagra, M, Marco-Rius, I, (2022). A cryopreservation method for bioengineered 3D cell culture models Biomedical Materials 17, 045023
Technologies to cryogenically preserve (a.k.a. cryopreserve) living tissue, cell lines and primary cells have matured greatly for both clinicians and researchers since their first demonstration in the 1950s and are widely used in storage and transport applications. Currently, however, there remains an absence of viable cryopreservation and thawing methods for bioengineered, three-dimensional (3D) cell models, including patients' samples. As a first step towards addressing this gap, we demonstrate a viable protocol for spheroid cryopreservation and survival based on a 3D carboxymethyl cellulose scaffold and precise conditions for freezing and thawing. The protocol is tested using hepatocytes, for which the scaffold provides both the 3D structure for cells to self-arrange into spheroids and to support cells during freezing for optimal post-thaw viability. Cell viability after thawing is improved compared to conventional pellet models where cells settle under gravity to form a pseudo-tissue before freezing. The technique may advance cryobiology and other applications that demand high-integrity transport of pre-assembled 3D models (from cell lines and in future cells from patients) between facilities, for example between medical practice, research and testing facilities.
JTD Keywords: 3d cell culture, Biofabrication, Biomaterials, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cryopreservation, Hepatocytes, Prevention, Scaffolds, Spheroids
Prat-Vidal, C., Rodríguez-Gómez, L., Aylagas, M., Nieto-Nicolau, N., Gastelurrutia, P., Agustí, E., Gálvez-Montón, C., Jorba, I., Teis, A., Monguió-Tortajada, M., Roura, S., Vives, J., Torrents-Zapata, S., Coca, M. I., Reales, L., Cámara-Rosell, M. L., Cediel, G., Coll, R., Farré, R., Navajas, D., Vilarrodona, A., García-López, J., Muñoz-Guijosa, C., Querol, S., Bayes-Genis, A., (2020). First-in-human PeriCord cardiac bioimplant: Scalability and GMP manufacturing of an allogeneic engineered tissue graft EBioMedicine 54, 102729
Small cardiac tissue engineering constructs show promise for limiting post-infarct sequelae in animal models. This study sought to scale-up a 2-cm2 preclinical construct into a human-size advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP; PeriCord), and to test it in a first-in-human implantation.
The PeriCord is a clinical-size (12–16 cm2) decellularised pericardial matrix colonised with human viable Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs). WJ-MSCs expanded following good manufacturing practices (GMP) met safety and quality standards regarding the number of cumulative population doublings, genomic stability, and sterility. Human decellularised pericardial scaffolds were tested for DNA content, matrix stiffness, pore size, and absence of microbiological growth.
PeriCord implantation was surgically performed on a large non-revascularisable scar in the inferior wall of a 63-year-old male patient. Coronary artery bypass grafting was concomitantly performed in the non-infarcted area. At implantation, the 16-cm2 pericardial scaffold contained 12·5 × 106 viable WJ-MSCs (85·4% cell viability; <0·51 endotoxin units (EU)/mL). Intraoperative PeriCord delivery was expeditious, and secured with surgical glue. The post-operative course showed non-adverse reaction to the PeriCord, without requiring host immunosuppression. The three-month clinical follow-up was uneventful, and three-month cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed ~9% reduction in scar mass in the treated area.
This preliminary report describes the development of a scalable clinical-size allogeneic PeriCord cardiac bioimplant, and its first-in-human implantation.
La Marató de TV3 Foundation, Government of Catalonia, Catalan Society of Cardiology, “La Caixa” Banking Foundation, Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, Institute of Health Carlos III, and the European Regional Development Fund.
JTD Keywords: Advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP), Biofabrication, Cardiac tissue engineering, Myocardial infarction, Scaffold, Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs)
Cofiño, C., Perez-Amodio, S., Semino, C. E., Engel, E., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., (2019). Development of a self-assembled peptide/methylcellulose-based bioink for 3D bioprinting Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 304, (11), 1900353
The introduction of 3D bioprinting to fabricate living constructs with tailored architecture has provided a new paradigm for biofabrication, with the potential to overcome several drawbacks of conventional scaffold-based tissue regeneration strategies. Hydrogel-based materials are suitable candidates regarding cell biocompatibility but often display poor mechanical properties. Self-assembling peptides are a promising source of biomaterials to be used as 3D scaffolds based on their similarity to extracellular matrices (structurally and mechanically). In this study, an advanced bioink for biofabrication is presented based on the optimization of a RAD16-I-based biomaterial. The strategy followed to build 3D predefined structures by 3D printing is based on an enhancement of bioink viscosity by adding methylcellulose (MC) to a RAD16-I solution. The resultant constructs display high shape fidelity and stability and embedded human mesenchymal stem cells present high viability after 7 days of culture. Moreover, cells are also able to differentiate to the adipogenic lineage, suggesting the suitability of this novel biomaterial for soft tissue engineering applications.
JTD Keywords: 3D bioprinting, Biofabrication, Bioinks, Self-assembling peptides, Tissue engineering
Torras, N., García-Díaz, M., Fernández-Majada, V., Martínez, Elena, (2018). Mimicking epithelial tissues in three-dimensional cell culture models Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 6, Article 197
Epithelial tissues are composed of layers of tightly connected cells shaped into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures such as cysts, tubules, or invaginations. These complex 3D structures are important for organ-specific functions and often create biochemical gradients that guide cell positioning and compartmentalization within the organ. One of the main functions of epithelia is to act as physical barriers that protect the underlying tissues from external insults. In vitro, epithelial barriers are usually mimicked by oversimplified models based on cell lines grown as monolayers on flat surfaces. While useful to answer certain questions, these models cannot fully capture the in vivo organ physiology and often yield poor predictions. In order to progress further in basic and translational research, disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine, it is essential to advance the development of new in vitro predictive models of epithelial tissues that are capable of representing the in vivo-like structures and organ functionality more accurately. Here, we review current strategies for obtaining biomimetic systems in the form of advanced in vitro models that allow for more reliable and safer preclinical tests. The current state of the art and potential applications of self-organized cell-based systems, organ-on-a-chip devices that incorporate sensors and monitoring capabilities, as well as microfabrication techniques including bioprinting and photolithography, are discussed. These techniques could be combined to help provide highly predictive drug tests for patient-specific conditions in the near future.
JTD Keywords: 3D cell culture models, Biofabrication, Disease modeling, Drug screening, Epithelial barriers, Microengineered tissues, Organ-on-a-chip, Organoids
da Palma, R. K., Campillo, N., Uriarte, J. J., Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2015). Pressure- and flow-controlled media perfusion differently modify vascular mechanics in lung decellularization Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 49, 69-79
Organ biofabrication is a potential future alternative for obtaining viable organs for transplantation. Achieving intact scaffolds to be recellularized is a key step in lung bioengineering. Perfusion of decellularizing media through the pulmonary artery has shown to be effective. How vascular perfusion pressure and flow vary throughout lung decellularization, which is not well known, is important for optimizing the process (minimizing time) while ensuring scaffold integrity (no barotrauma). This work was aimed at characterizing the pressure/flow relationship at the pulmonary vasculature and at how effective vascular resistance depends on pressure- and flow-controlled variables when applying different methods of media perfusion for lung decellularization. Lungs from 43 healthy mice (C57BL/6; 7-8 weeks old) were investigated. After excision and tracheal cannulation, lungs were inflated at 10cmH
JTD Keywords: Acellular lung, Fluid mechanics, Lung bioengineering, Lung scaffold, Organ biofabrication, Tissue engineering, Vascular resistance