by Keyword: Nanostructures
Venugopal A, Ruiz-Perez L, Swamynathan K, Kulkarni C, Calò A, Kumar M, (2022). Caught in Action: Visualizing Dynamic Nanostructures Within Supramolecular Systems Chemistry Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. Print) , e202208681
Supramolecular systems chemistry has been an area of active research to develop nanomaterials with life-like functions. Progress in systems chemistry relies on our ability to probe the nanostructure formation in solution. Often visualizing the dynamics of nanostructures which transform over time is a formidable challenge. This necessitates a paradigm shift from dry sample imaging towards solution-based techniques. We review the application of state-of-the-art techniques for real-time, in situ visualization of dynamic self-assembly processes. We present how solution-based techniques namely optical super-resolution microscopy, solution-state atomic force microscopy, liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and other emerging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of active and adaptive nanomaterials with life-like functions. This Review provides the visualization toolbox and futuristic vision to tap the potential of dynamic nanomaterials.© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.
JTD Keywords: Liquid tem, Nanostructures, Super-resolution microscopy, Supramolecular chemistry, Systems chemistry
Roki, Nikša, Solomon, Melani, Bowers, Jessica, Getts, Lori, Getts, Robert C., Muro, Silvia, (2022). Tuning Design Parameters of ICAM-1-Targeted 3DNA Nanocarriers to Optimize Pulmonary Targeting Depending on Drug Type Pharmaceutics 14, 1496
3DNA holds promise as a carrier for drugs that can be intercalated into its core or linked to surface arms. Coupling 3DNA to an antibody targeting intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) results in high lung-specific biodistributions in vivo. While the role of individual parameters on ICAM-1 targeting has been studied for other nanocarriers, it has never been examined for 3DNA or in a manner capable of revealing the hierarchic interplay among said parameters. In this study, we used 2-layer vs. 4-layer anti-ICAM 3DNA and radiotracing to examine biodistribution in mice. We found that, below saturating conditions and within the ranges tested, the density of targeting antibodies on 3DNA is the most relevant parameter driving lung targeting over liver clearance, compared to the number of antibodies per carrier, total antibody dose, 3DNA dose, 3DNA size, or the administered concentration, which influenced the dose in organs but not the lung specific-over-liver clearance ratio. Data predicts that lung-specific delivery of intercalating (core loaded) drugs can be tuned using this biodistribution pattern, while that of arm-linked (surface loaded) drugs requires a careful parametric balance because increasing anti-ICAM density reduces the number of 3DNA arms available for drug loading.
JTD Keywords: acid sphingomyelinase, antibody, carrier design parameters, carriers, dna nanostructures, doxorubicin, drug type, icam-1, inflammation, lung targeting, multiparametric hierarchy, nanoparticles, size, 3dna nanocarrier, Intracellular delivery
Vila, JC, Castro-Aguirre, N, Lopez-Munoz, GA, Ferret-Minana, A, De Chiara, F, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2021). Disposable Polymeric Nanostructured Plasmonic Biosensors for Cell Culture Adhesion Monitoring Frontiers In Bioengineering And Biotechnology 9,
Over the last years, optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanomaterials have gained great scientific interest due to their unquestionable advantages compared to other biosensing technologies. They can achieve sensitive, direct, and label-free analysis with exceptional potential for multiplexing and miniaturization. Recently, it has been demonstrated the potential of using optical discs as high throughput nanotemplates for the development of plasmonic biosensors in a cost-effective way. This work is a pilot study focused on the development of an integrated plasmonic biosensor for the monitoring of cell adhesion and growth of human retinal pigmented cell line (ARPE-19) under different media conditions (0 and 2% of FBS). We observed an increase of the plasmonic band displacement under 2% FBS compared to 0% conditions over time (1, 3, and 5 h). These preliminary results show that the proposed plasmonic biosensing approach is a direct, non-destructive, and real-time tool that could be employed in the study of living cells behavior and culture conditions. Furthermore, this setup could assess the viability of the cells and their growth over time with low variability between the technical replicates improving the experimental replicability.
JTD Keywords: cell confluency, cell culture, nanocrystals, optical biosensor, Adhesion monitoring, Biosensing, Biosensors, Cell adhesion, Cell confluency, Cell culture, Cells, Condition, Cost effectiveness, Disposables, Nano-structured, Nanocrystals, Optical bio-sensors, Optical biosensor, Plasmonic biosensors, Plasmonic nanostructures, Plasmonics, Polylysine
Lopez-Muñoz, Gerardo A, Fernández-Costa, Juan M, Ortega, Maria Alejandra, Balaguer-Trias, Jordina, Martin-Lasierra, Eduard, Ramón-Azcón, Javier, (2021). Plasmonic nanocrystals on polycarbonate substrates for direct and label-free biodetection of Interleukin-6 in bioengineered 3D skeletal muscles Nanophotonics 10, 4477-4488
Abstract The development of nanostructured plasmonic biosensors has been widely widespread in the last years, motivated by the potential benefits they can offer in integration, miniaturization, multiplexing opportunities, and enhanced performance label-free biodetection in a wide field of applications. Between them, engineering tissues represent a novel, challenging, and prolific application field for nanostructured plasmonic biosensors considering the previously described benefits and the low levels of secreted biomarkers (?pM–nM) to detect. Here, we present an integrated plasmonic nanocrystals-based biosensor using high throughput nanostructured polycarbonate substrates. Metallic film thickness and incident angle of light for reflectance measurements were optimized to enhance the detection of antibody–antigen biorecognition events using numerical simulations. We achieved an enhancement in biodetection up to 3× as the incident angle of light decreases, which can be related to shorter evanescent decay lengths. We achieved a high reproducibility between channels with a coefficient of variation below 2% in bulk refractive index measurements, demonstrating a high potential for multiplexed sensing. Finally, biosensing potential was demonstrated by the direct and label-free detection of interleukin-6 biomarker in undiluted cell culture media supernatants from bioengineered 3D skeletal muscle tissues stimulated with different concentrations of endotoxins achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of ? 0.03 ng/mL (1.4 pM).
JTD Keywords: assay, crystals, drug, label-free biosensing, molecules, plasmonic nanostructures, sensors, skeletal muscle, tissue engineering, Biodetection, Biomarkers, Biosensors, Cell culture, Cells, Chemical detection, Histology, Interleukin-6, Interleukin6 (il6), Label free, Label-free biosensing, Muscle, Nano-structured, Nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanocrystals, Plasmonic nanostructures, Plasmonics, Polycarbonate substrates, Polycarbonates, Refractive index, Sensitivity, Skeletal muscle, Tissue engineering, Tissues engineerings
Konka, J, Espanol, M, Bosch, BM, de Oliveira, E, Ginebra, MP, (2021). Maturation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in physiological fluids: a physicochemical and proteomic study Materials Today Bio 12,
Biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) as a bioactive material exhibits exceptional intrinsic osteoinductive and osteogenic properties because of its nanostructure and composition, which promote a favorable microenvironment. Its high reactivity has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in the in vivo performance, mediated by the interaction with the biological fluids, which is amplified by its high specific surface area. Paradoxically, this high reactivity is also behind the in vitro cytotoxicity of this material, especially pro-nounced in static conditions. The present work explores the structural and physicochemical changes that CDHA undergoes in contact with physiological fluids and to investigate its interaction with proteins. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite discs with different micro/nanostructures, coarse (C) and fine (F), were exposed to cell-free complete culture medium over extended periods of time: 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 50 days. Precipitate formation was not observed in any of the materials in contact with the physiological fluid, which would indicate that the ionic exchanges were linked to incorporation into the crystal structure of CDHA or in the hydrated layer. In fact, CDHA experienced a maturation process, with a progressive increase in crystallinity and the Ca/P ratio, accompanied by an uptake of Mg and a B-type carbonation process, with a gradual propagation into the core of the samples. However, the reactivity of biomimetic hydroxyapatite was highly dependent on the specific surface area and was amplified in nanosized needle-like crystal structures (F), whereas in coarse specimens the ionic exchanges were restricted to the surface, with low penetration in the material bulk. In addition to showing a higher protein adsorption on F substrates, the proteomics study revealed the existence of protein selectivity to-ward F or C microstructures, as well as the capability of CDHA, and more remarkably of F-CDHA, to concentrate specific proteins from the culture medium. Finally, a substantial improvement in the material's ability to support cell proliferation was observed after the CDHA maturation process.
JTD Keywords: calcium phosphates, ion exchange, nanostructure, protein adsorption, Biological-systems, Biomaterials, Biomimetic hydroxyapatites, Biomimetics, Bone-formation, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphates, Cell proliferation, Crystal structure, Crystallinity, Crystals structures, Culture medium, Growth, High reactivity, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Ion exchange, Ionic exchange, Molecular biology, Nanocrystalline apatites, Nanostructure, Nanostructures, Octacalcium phosphate, Physicochemical studies, Physiological fluids, Physiology, Protein adsorption, Proteins, Proteomic studies, Raman spectroscopy, Serum-albumin, Specific surface area
Balakrishnan H, Millan-Solsona R, Checa M, Fabregas R, Fumagalli L, Gomila G, (2021). Depth mapping of metallic nanowire polymer nanocomposites by scanning dielectric microscopy Nanoscale 13, 10116-10126
Polymer nanocomposite materials based on metallic nanowires are widely investigated as transparent and flexible electrodes or as stretchable conductors and dielectrics for biosensing. Here we show that Scanning Dielectric Microscopy (SDM) can map the depth distribution of metallic nanowires within the nanocomposites in a non-destructive way. This is achieved by a quantitative analysis of sub-surface electrostatic force microscopy measurements with finite-element numerical calculations. As an application we determined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of ?50 nm diameter silver nanowires in ?100 nm-250 nm thick gelatin films. The characterization is done both under dry ambient conditions, where gelatin shows a relatively low dielectric constant, ?r ? 5, and under humid ambient conditions, where its dielectric constant increases up to ?r ? 14. The present results show that SDM can be a valuable non-destructive subsurface characterization technique for nanowire-based nanocomposite materials, which can contribute to the optimization of these materials for applications in fields such as wearable electronics, solar cell technologies or printable electronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
JTD Keywords: composite, constant, electrodes, mode, nanostructures, objects, progress, subsurface, tomography, Composite materials, Dielectric materials, Electric force microscopy, Electrostatic force, Force microscopy, Low dielectric constants, Nanocomposites, Numerical calculation, Polymer nanocomposite, Printable electronics, Scanning dielectric microscopy, Silver nanowires, Solar cell technology, Stretchable conductors, Subsurface characterizations, Transparent electrodes, Wearable technology
Sebastian, P., Giannotti, M. I., Gómez, E., Feliu, J. M., (2018). Surface sensitive nickel electrodeposition in deep eutectic solvent ACS Applied Energy Materials , 1, (3), 1016-1028
The first steps of nickel electrodeposition in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) are analyzed in detail. Several substrates from glassy carbon to Pt(111) were investigated pointing out the surface sensitivity of the nucleation and growth mechanism. For that, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were employed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to more deeply analyze the Ni deposition on Pt substrates. In a 0.1 M NiCl2 + DES solution (at 70 °C), the nickel deposition on glassy carbon takes place within the potential limits of the electrode in the blank solution. Although, the electrochemical window of Pt|DES is considerably shorter than on glassy carbon|DES, it was still sufficient for the nickel deposition. On the Pt electrode, the negative potential limit was enlarged while the nickel deposit grew, likely because of the lower catalytic activity of the nickel toward the reduction of the DES. At lower overpotentials, different hydrogenated Ni structures were favored, most likely because of the DES co-reduction on the Pt substrate. Nanometric metallic nickel grains of rounded shape were obtained on any substrate, as evidenced by the FE-SEM. Passivation phenomena, related to the formation of Ni oxide and Ni hydroxylated species, were observed at high applied overpotentials. At low deposited charge, on Pt(111) the AFM measurements showed the formation of rounded nanometric particles of Ni, which rearranged and formed small triangular arrays at sufficiently low applied overpotential. This particle pattern was induced by the (111) orientation and related to surface sensitivity of the nickel deposition in DES. The present work provides deep insights into the Ni electrodeposition mechanism in the selected deep eutectic solvent.
JTD Keywords: AFM, Deep eutectic solvent, Glassy carbon, Nanostructures, Nickel electrodeposition, Platinum electrode, Pt(111), SEM, Surface sensitive
Fernandez, Javier G., Mills, C. A., Samitier, J., (2009). Complex microstructured 3D surfaces using chitosan biopolymer Small 5, (5), 614-620
A technique for producing micrometer-scale structures over large, nonplanar chitosan surfaces is described. The technique makes use of the rheological characteristics (deformability) of the chitosan to create freestanding, three-dimensional scaffolds with controlled shapes, incorporating defined microtopography. The results of an investigation into the technical limits of molding different combinations of shapes and microtopographies are presented, highlighting the versatility of the technique when used irrespectively with inorganic or delicate organic moulds. The final, replicated scaffolds presented here are patterned with arrays of one-micrometer-tall microstructures over large areas. Structural integrity is characterized by the measurement of structural degradation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a tubular scaffold show that early cell growth is conditioned by the microtopography and indicate possible uses for the structures in biomedical applications. For those applications requiring improved chemical and mechanical resistance, the structures can be replicated in poly(dimethyl siloxane).
JTD Keywords: Biocompatible Materials/ chemistry, Cell Adhesion, Cell Culture Techniques/ methods, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Chitosan/ chemistry, Crystallization/methods, Endothelial Cells/ cytology/ physiology, Humans, Materials Testing, Nanostructures/ chemistry/ ultrastructure, Nanotechnology/methods, Particle Size, Surface Properties, Tissue Engineering/methods
Ruiz, A., Mills, C. A., Valsesia, A., Martinez, E., Ceccone, G., Samitier, J., Colpo, P., Rossi, F., (2009). Large-area, nanoimprint-assisted microcontact stripping for the fabrication of microarrays of fouling/nonfouling nanostructures Small 5, (10), 1133-1137
Methods for the accurate positioning of nanometric beads on a substrate have been developed over a number of years, and range from serial atomic force microscopy (AFM)techniques for single-bead positioning to parallel techniques for the positioning of large populations of beads in monolayer or multilayer architectures, typically from a liquid suspension. For example, topographic cues have been used for bead-based protein array production, although in this case, there is a random distribution of beads within the topography. Bead patterning has also been achieved in capillaries using a micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) technique. Line patterns with micrometer widths are possible with this technique, achieving good multilayer organization. For monolayer bead patterning at micrometer dimensions, electrostatic forces and similar electrostatic assemblies using nanoxerography, as well as patterning by selective chemical functionalization, by transfer of particles from a liquid–liquid interface, and by subtracting top–down processes, are possible.
JTD Keywords: Microcontact stripping, Nanostructures, Poly(acrylic acid), Polystyrene, Surface patterning
Martinez, E., Lagunas, A., Mills, C. A., Rodriguez-Segui, S., Estevez, M., Oberhansl, S., Comelles, J., Samitier, J., (2009). Stem cell differentiation by functionalized micro- and nanostructured surfaces Nanomedicine 4, (1), 65-82
New fabrication technologies and, in particular, new nanotechnologies have provided biomaterial and biomedical scientists with enormous possibilities when designing customized supports and scaffolds with controlled nanoscale topography and chemistry. The main issue now is how to effectively design these components and choose the appropriate combination of structure and chemistry to tailor towards applications as challenging and complex as stem cell differentiation. Occasionally, an incomplete knowledge of the fundamentals of biological differentiation process has hampered this issue. However, the recent technological advances in creating controlled cellular microenvironments can be seen as a powerful tool for furthering fundamental biology studies. This article reviews the main strategies followed to achieve solutions to this challenge, particularly emphasizing the working hypothesis followed by the authors to elucidate the mechanisms behind the observed effects of structured surfaces on cell behavior.
JTD Keywords: Cell pattering, Differentiation, Microcontact printing, Micropatterning, Microstructure, Nanoimprinting, Nanostructure, Stem cells
Mir, M., Cameron, P. J., Zhong, X., Azzaroni, O., Alvarez, M., Knoll, W., (2009). Anti-fouling characteristics of surface-confined oligonucleotide strands bioconjugated on streptavidin platforms in the presence of nanomaterials Talanta 78, (3), 1102-6
This work describes our studies on the molecular design of interfacial architectures suitable for DNA sensing which could resist non-specific binding of nanomaterials commonly used as labels for amplifying biorecognition events. We observed that the non-specific binding of bio-nanomaterials to surface-confined oligonucleotide strands is highly dependent on the characteristics of the interfacial architecture. Thiolated double stranded oligonucleotide arrays assembled on Au surfaces evidence significant fouling in the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) at the nanomolar level. The non-specific interaction between the oligonucleotide strands and the nanomaterials can be sensitively minimized by introducing streptavidin (SAv) as an underlayer conjugated to the DNA arrays. The role of the SAv layer was attributed to the significant hydrophilic repulsion between the SAv-modified surface and the nanomaterials in close proximity to the interface, thus conferring outstanding anti-fouling characteristics to the interfacial architecture. These results provide a simple and straightforward strategy to overcome the limitations introduced by the non-specific binding of labels to achieve reliable detection of DNA-based biorecognition events.
JTD Keywords: DNA/ analysis, Gold, Nanostructures/ chemistry, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/ instrumentation, Oligonucleotides/ chemistry, Streptavidin/ chemistry, Sulfhydryl Compounds