Staff member


Noelia Campillo Agulló

PhD Student
Cellular and Respiratory Biomechanics
ncampillo@ibecbarcelona.eu
+34 934 039 764
Staff member publications

Campillo, N., Torres, M., Vilaseca, A., Nonaka, P. N., Gozal, D., Roca-Ferrer, J., Picado, C., Montserrat, J. M., Farré, R., Navajas, D., Almendros, I., (2017). Role of cyclooxygenase-2 on intermittent hypoxia-induced lung tumor malignancy in a mouse model of sleep apnea Scientific Reports 7, 44693

An adverse role for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cancer epidemiology and outcomes has recently emerged from clinical and animal studies. In animals, intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking OSA promotes tumor malignancy both directly and via host immune alterations. We hypothesized that IH could potentiate cancer aggressiveness through activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway and the concomitant increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The contribution of the COX-2 in IH-induced enhanced tumor malignancy was assessed using celecoxib as a COX-2 specific inhibitor in a murine model of OSA bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) tumors. Exposures to IH accelerated tumor progression with a tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) shift towards a pro-tumoral M2 phenotype. Treatment with celecoxib prevented IH-induced adverse tumor outcomes by inhibiting IH-induced M2 polarization of TAMs. Furthermore, TAMs isolated from IH-exposed mice treated with celecoxib reduced the proliferation of LLC1 naïve cells, while the opposite occurred with placebo-treated IH-exposed mice. Finally, in vitro IH exposures of murine macrophages and LLC1 cells showed that both cell types increased PGE2 release in response to IH. These results suggest a crucial role for the COX-2 signaling pathway in the IH-exacerbated malignant processes, and designate macrophages and lung adenocarcinoma cells, as potential sources of PGE2.


Schillers, H., Rianna, C., Schäpe, J., Luque, T., Doschke, H., Wälte, M., Uriarte, J. J., Campillo, N., Michanetzis, G. P. A., Bobrowska, J., Dumitru, A., Herruzo, E. T., Bovio, S., Parot, P., Galluzzi, M., Podestà, A., Puricelli, L., Scheuring, S., Missirlis, Y., Garcia, R., Odorico, M., Teulon, J. M., Lafont, F., Lekka, M., Rico, F., Rigato, A., Pellequer, J. L., Oberleithner, H., Navajas, D., Radmacher, M., (2017). Standardized nanomechanical atomic force microscopy procedure (SNAP) for measuring soft and biological samples Scientific Reports 7, (1), 5117

We present a procedure that allows a reliable determination of the elastic (Young's) modulus of soft samples, including living cells, by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The standardized nanomechanical AFM procedure (SNAP) ensures the precise adjustment of the AFM optical lever system, a prerequisite for all kinds of force spectroscopy methods, to obtain reliable values independent of the instrument, laboratory and operator. Measurements of soft hydrogel samples with a well-defined elastic modulus using different AFMs revealed that the uncertainties in the determination of the deflection sensitivity and subsequently cantilever's spring constant were the main sources of error. SNAP eliminates those errors by calculating the correct deflection sensitivity based on spring constants determined with a vibrometer. The procedure was validated within a large network of European laboratories by measuring the elastic properties of gels and living cells, showing that its application reduces the variability in elastic moduli of hydrogels down to 1%, and increased the consistency of living cells elasticity measurements by a factor of two. The high reproducibility of elasticity measurements provided by SNAP could improve significantly the applicability of cell mechanics as a quantitative marker to discriminate between cell types and conditions.


Jorba, I., Uriarte, J. J., Campillo, N., Farré, R., Navajas, D., (2017). Probing micromechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of soft tissues by atomic force microscopy Journal of Cellular Physiology 232, (1), 19-26

The extracellular matrix (ECM) determines 3D tissue architecture and provides structural support and chemical and mechanical cues to the cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has unique capabilities to measure ECM mechanics at the scale at which cells probe the mechanical features of their microenvironment. Moreover, AFM measurements can be readily combined with bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Performing reliable mechanical measurements with AFM requires accurate calibration of the device and correct computation of the mechanical parameters. A suitable approach to isolate ECM mechanics from cell contribution is removing the cells by means of an effective decellularization process that preserves the composition, structure and mechanical properties of the ECM. AFM measurement of ECM micromechanics provides important insights into organ biofabrication, cell-matrix mechanical crosstalk and disease-induced tissue stiffness alterations.


Vilaseca, A., Campillo, N., Torres, M., Musquera, M., Gozal, D., Montserrat, J. M., Alcaraz, A., Touijer, K. A., Farré, R., Almendros, I., (2017). Intermittent hypoxia increases kidney tumor vascularization in a murine model of sleep apnea PLoS ONE 12, (6),

We investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), a characteristic feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), on renal cancer progression in an animal and cell model. An in vivo mouse model (Balb/c, n = 50) of kidney cancer was used to assess the effect of IH on tumor growth, metastatic capacity, angiogenesis and tumor immune response. An in vitro model tested the effect of IH on RENCA cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. Tumor growth, metastatic capacity, circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and content of endothelial cells, tumor associated macrophages and their phenotype were assessed in the tumor. In vitro, VEGF cell expression was quantified.Although IH did not boost tumor growth, it significantly increased endothelial cells (p = 0.001) and circulating VEGF (p<0.001) in the in vivo model. Macrophages exposed to IH in vitro increased VEGF expression, whereas RENCA cells and endothelial cells did not. These findings are in keeping with previous clinical data suggesting that OSA has no effect on kidney cancer size and that the association observed between OSA and higher Fuhrman grade of renal cell carcinoma may be mediated though a proangiogenic process, with a key role of macrophages.


Campillo, N., Jorba, I., Schaedel, L., Casals, B., Gozal, D., Farré, R., Almendros, I., Navajas, D., (2016). A novel chip for cyclic stretch and intermittent hypoxia cell exposures mimicking obstructive sleep apnea Frontiers in Physiology 7, Article 319

Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated morbidities, especially in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by IH are suggested as main contributors of end-organ dysfunction in OSA patients and animal models. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo pathological responses remain poorly understood, implementation of experimental in vitro cell-based systems capable of inducing high-frequency IH would be highly desirable. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and validation of a versatile chip for subjecting cultured cells to fast changes in gas partial pressure and to cyclic stretch. The chip is fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and consists of a cylindrical well-covered by a thin membrane. Cells cultured on top of the membrane can be subjected to fast changes in oxygen concentration (equilibrium time ~6 s). Moreover, cells can be subjected to cyclic stretch at cardiac or respiratory frequencies independently or simultaneously. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to IH mimicking OSA and cyclic stretch at cardiac frequencies revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a) expression was increased in response to both stimuli. Thus, the chip provides a versatile tool for the study of cellular responses to cyclical hypoxia and stretch.

Keywords: Cell stretch, Hypoxia-inducible factor, Intermittent hypoxia, Lab-on-a-chip, Obstructive sleep apnea


Nonaka, Paula N., Uriarte, Juan J., Campillo, Noelia, Oliveira, Vinicius R., Navajas, Daniel, Farré, Ramon, (2016). Lung bioengineering: physical stimuli and stem/progenitor cell biology interplay towards biofabricating a functional organ Respiratory Research 17, (1), 161

A current approach to obtain bioengineered lungs as a future alternative for transplantation is based on seeding stem cells on decellularized lung scaffolds. A fundamental question to be solved in this approach is how to drive stem cell differentiation onto the different lung cell phenotypes. Whereas the use of soluble factors as agents to modulate the fate of stem cells was established from an early stage of the research with this type of cells, it took longer to recognize that the physical microenvironment locally sensed by stem cells (e.g. substrate stiffness, 3D architecture, cyclic stretch, shear stress, air-liquid interface, oxygenation gradient) also contributes to their differentiation. The potential role played by physical stimuli would be particularly relevant in lung bioengineering since cells within the organ are physiologically subjected to two main stimuli required to facilitate efficient gas exchange: air ventilation and blood perfusion across the organ. The present review focuses on describing how the cell mechanical microenvironment can modulate stem cell differentiation and how these stimuli could be incorporated into lung bioreactors for optimizing organ bioengineering.


Uriarte, J. J., Meirelles, T., Del Blanco, D. G., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Sarri, E., Navajas, D., Egea, G., Farré, R., (2016). Early impairment of lung mechanics in a murine model of marfan syndrome PLoS ONE 11, (3), e0152124

Early morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) -a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene- are mainly caused by aorta aneurysm and rupture. However, the increase in the life expectancy of MFS patients recently achieved by reparatory surgery promotes clinical manifestations in other organs. Although some studies have reported respiratory alterations in MFS, our knowledge of how this connective tissue disease modifies lung mechanics is scarce. Hence, we assessed whether the stiffness of the whole lung and of its extracellular matrix (ECM) is affected in a well-characterized MFS mouse model (FBN1C1039G/+). The stiffness of the whole lung and of its ECM were measured by conventional mechanical ventilation and atomic force microscopy, respectively. We studied 5-week and 9-month old mice, whose ages are representative of early and late stages of the disease. At both ages, the lungs of MFS mice were significantly more compliant than in wild type (WT) mice. By contrast, no significant differences were found in local lung ECM stiffness. Moreover, histopathological lung evaluation showed a clear emphysematous- like pattern in MFS mice since alveolar space enlargement was significantly increased compared with WT mice. These data suggest that the mechanism explaining the increased lung compliance in MFS is not a direct consequence of reduced ECM stiffness, but an emphysema-like alteration in the 3D structural organization of the lung. Since lung alterations in MFS are almost fully manifested at an early age, it is suggested that respiratory monitoring could provide early biomarkers for diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with the Marfan syndrome.


da Palma, R. K., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Uriarte, J. J., Urbano, J. J., Navajas, D., Farré, R., Oliveira, L. V. F., (2016). Behavior of vascular resistance undergoing various pressure insufflation and perfusion on decellularized lungs Journal of Biomechanics 49, (7), 1230-1232

Bioengineering of functional lung tissue by using whole lung scaffolds has been proposed as a potential alternative for patients awaiting lung transplant. Previous studies have demonstrated that vascular resistance (Rv) could be altered to optimize the process of obtaining suitable lung scaffolds. Therefore, this work was aimed at determining how lung inflation (tracheal pressure) and perfusion (pulmonary arterial pressure) affect vascular resistance. This study was carried out using the lungs excised from 5 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. The trachea was cannulated and connected to a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to provide a tracheal pressure ranging from 0 to 15cmH2O. The pulmonary artery was cannulated and connected to a controlled perfusion system with continuous pressure (gravimetric level) ranging from 5 to 30cmH2O. Effective Rv was calculated by ratio of pulmonary artery pressure (P PA) by pulmonary artery flow (V'PA). Rv in the decellularized lungs scaffolds decreased at increasing V' PA, stabilizing at a pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 20cmH2O. On the other hand, CPAP had no influence on vascular resistance in the lung scaffolds after being subjected to pulmonary artery pressure of 5cmH2O. In conclusion, compared to positive airway pressure, arterial lung pressure markedly influences the mechanics of vascular resistance in decellularized lungs.

Keywords: Decellularized lung, Scaffolds, Vascular resistance


Casares, L., Vincent, R., Zalvidea, D., Campillo, N., Navajas, D., Arroyo, M., Trepat, X., (2015). Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching Nature Materials 14, (3), 343-351

The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell–cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.


Torres, M., Rojas, M., Campillo, N., Cardenes, N., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2015). Parabiotic model for differentiating local and systemic effects of continuous and intermittent hypoxia Journal of Applied Physiology 118, (1), 42-47

Hypoxia can be damaging either because cells are directly sensitive to low oxygen pressure in their local microenvironment and/or because they are exposed to circulating factors systemically secreted in response to hypoxia. The conventional hypoxia model, breathing hypoxic air, does not allow one to distinguish between these local and systemic effects. Here we propose and validate a model for differentially applying local and systemic hypoxic challenges in an animal. We used parabiosis, two mice sharing circulation by surgical union through the skin, and tested the hypothesis that when one of the parabionts breathes room air and the other one is subjected to hypoxic air, both mice share systemic circulation but remain normoxic and hypoxic, respectively. We tested two common hypoxic paradigms in 10 parabiotic pairs: continuous hypoxia (10% O2) mimicking chronic lung diseases, and intermittent hypoxia (40 s, 21% O2; 20 s, 5% O2) simulating sleep apnea. Arterial oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure at muscle tissue were measured in both parabionts. Effective cross-circulation was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting a dye in one of the parabionts and measuring blood dye concentration in both animals after 2 h. The results confirmed the hypothesis that tissues of the parabiont under room air were perfused with normally oxygenated blood and, at the same time, were exposed to all of the systemic mediators secreted by the other parabiont actually subjected to hypoxia. In conclusion, combination of parabiosis and hypoxic/normoxic air breathing is a novel approach to investigate the effects of local and systemic hypoxia in respiratory diseases.

Keywords: Animal model, Local hypoxia, Parabiosis, Systemic hypoxia


da Palma, R. K., Campillo, N., Uriarte, J. J., Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2015). Pressure- and flow-controlled media perfusion differently modify vascular mechanics in lung decellularization Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 49, 69-79

Organ biofabrication is a potential future alternative for obtaining viable organs for transplantation. Achieving intact scaffolds to be recellularized is a key step in lung bioengineering. Perfusion of decellularizing media through the pulmonary artery has shown to be effective. How vascular perfusion pressure and flow vary throughout lung decellularization, which is not well known, is important for optimizing the process (minimizing time) while ensuring scaffold integrity (no barotrauma). This work was aimed at characterizing the pressure/flow relationship at the pulmonary vasculature and at how effective vascular resistance depends on pressure- and flow-controlled variables when applying different methods of media perfusion for lung decellularization. Lungs from 43 healthy mice (C57BL/6; 7-8 weeks old) were investigated. After excision and tracheal cannulation, lungs were inflated at 10cmH2O airway pressure and subjected to conventional decellularization with a solution of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Pressure (PPA) and flow (V'PA) at the pulmonary artery were continuously measured. Decellularization media was perfused through the pulmonary artery: (a) at constant PPA=20cmH2O or (b) at constant V'PA=0.5 and 0.2ml/min. Effective vascular resistance was computed as Rv=PPA/V'PA. Rv (in cmH2O/(ml/min)); mean±SE) considerably varied throughout lung decellularization, particularly for pressure-controlled perfusion (from 29.1±3.0 in baseline to a maximum of 664.1±164.3 (p<0.05), as compared with flow-controlled perfusion (from 49.9±3.3 and 79.5±5.1 in baseline to a maximum of 114.4±13.9 and 211.7±70.5 (p<0.05, both), for V'PA of 0.5 and 0.2ml/min respectively. Most of the media infused to the pulmonary artery throughout decellularization circulated to the airways compartment across the alveolar-capillary membrane. This study shows that monitoring perfusion mechanics throughout decellularization provides information relevant for optimizing the process time while ensuring that vascular pressure is kept within a safety range to preserve the organ scaffold integrity.

Keywords: Acellular lung, Fluid mechanics, Lung bioengineering, Lung scaffold, Organ biofabrication, Tissue engineering, Vascular resistance


Uriarte, J. J., Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Palma, R. K., Melo, E., de Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Mechanical properties of acellular mouse lungs after sterilization by gamma irradiation Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 40, 168-177

Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.

Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, Pulmonary mechanics, Decellularization, Gamma irradiation, Mouse lung, Pulmonary mechanics, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, Article, artificial ventilation, bioengineering, bioreactor, compliance (physical), controlled study, freezing, gamma irradiation, lung, lung mechanics, lung resistance, male, mouse, nonhuman, room temperature, scanning electron microscopy, tissue scaffold, trachea pressure


Nonaka, P. N., Campillo, N., Uriarte, J. J., Garreta, E., Melo, E., de Oliveira, L. V. F., Navajas, D., Farré, R., (2014). Effects of freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A 102, (2), 413-419

Lung bioengineering based on decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for transplantation. Freezing/thawing, a usual procedure in organ decellularization and storage could modify the mechanical properties of the lung scaffold and reduce the performance of the bioengineered lung when subjected to the physiological inflation-deflation breathing cycles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated freezing/thawing on the mechanical properties of decellularized lungs in the physiological pressure-volume regime associated with normal ventilation. Fifteen mice lungs (C57BL/6) were decellularized using a conventional protocol not involving organ freezing and based on sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent. Subsequently, the mechanical properties of the acellular lungs were measured before and after subjecting them to three consecutive cycles of freezing/thawing. The resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) of the decellularized lungs were computed by linear regression fitting of the recorded signals (tracheal pressure, flow, and volume) during mechanical ventilation. RL was not significantly modified by freezing-thawing: from 0.88 ± 0.37 to 0.90 ± 0.38 cmH2O·s·mL-1 (mean ± SE). EL slightly increased from 64.4 ± 11.1 to 73.0 ± 16.3 cmH2O·mL-1 after the three freeze-thaw cycles (p = 0.0013). In conclusion, the freezing/thawing process that is commonly used for both organ decellularization and storage induces only minor changes in the ventilation mechanical properties of the organ scaffold.

Keywords: Elastance, Freezing/thawing, Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Mechanical ventilation, Organ scaffold


Nonaka, P. N., Uriarte, J. J., Campillo, N., Melo, E., Navajas, D., Farré, R., Oliveira, L. V. F., (2014). Mechanical properties of mouse lungs along organ decellularization by sodium dodecyl sulfate Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 200, 1-5

Lung decellularization is based on the use of physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods to break down the integrity of the cells followed by a treatment to extract the cellular material from the lung scaffold. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical changes throughout the different steps of lung decellularization process. Four lungs from mice (C57BL/6) were decellularized by using a conventional protocol based on sodium dodecyl sulfate. Lungs resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were measured along decellularization steps and were computed by linear regression fitting of tracheal pressure, flow, and volume during mechanical ventilation. Transients differences found were more distinct in an intermediate step after the lungs were rinsed with deionized water and treated with 1% SDS, whereupon the percentage of variation reached approximately 80% for resistance values and 30% for elastance values. In conclusion, although a variation in extracellular matrix stiffness was observed during the decellularization process, this variation can be considered negligible overall because the resistance and elastance returned to basal values at the final decellularization step.

Keywords: Lung bioengineering, Lung decellularization, Organ scaffold, dodecyl sulfate sodium, animal tissue, article, artificial ventilation, compliance (physical), controlled study, enzyme chemistry, extracellular matrix, female, flow, lung, lung decellularization, lung pressure, lung resistance, mouse, nonhuman, positive end expiratory pressure, priority journal, rigidity, tissue engineering, trachea pressure


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