by Keyword: Microparticle

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Chattopadhyay, P, Magdanz, V, Hernandez-Melia, M, Borchert, KBL, Schwarz, D, Simmchen, J, (2022). Size-Dependent Inhibition of Sperm Motility by Copper Particles as a Path toward Male Contraception Advanced Nanobiomed Research ,

Effective inhibition of sperm motility using a spermicide can be a promising approach in developing non-invasive male contraceptive agents. Copper is known to have contraceptive properties and has been used clinically for decades as intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) for contraception in females. Beyond that, the spermicidal use of copper is not explored much further, even though its use can also subdue the harmful effects caused by the hormonal female contraceptive agents on the environment. Herein, the size, concentration, and time-dependent in vitro inhibition of bovine spermatozoa by copper microparticles are studied. The effectivity in inhibiting sperm motility is correlated with the amount of Cu2+ ions released by the particles during incubation. The copper particles cause direct suppression of sperm motility and viability upon incubation and thereby show potential as sperm-inhibiting, hormone-free candidate for male contraception. In addition, biocompatibility tests using a cervical cell line help optimizing the size and concentration of the copper particles for the best spermicidal action while avoiding toxicity to the surrounding tissue.

Keywords: Bovine spermatozoa, Clinical-trial, Copper, Human-spermatozoa, Ions, Male contraception, Metallic copper, Microparticles, Progestins, Sperm motility, Sperm viability, Spermicide, Viability

Georgiev VN, Avalos-Padilla Y, Fernàndez-Busquets X, Dimova R, (2022). Femtoliter Injection of ESCRT-III Proteins into Adhered Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Bio Protoc 12, e4328

The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery mediates membrane fission reactions that exhibit a different topology from that observed in clathrin-coated vesicles. In all of the ESCRT-mediated events, the nascent vesicle buds away from the cytosol. However, ESCRT proteins are able to act upon membranes with different geometries. For instance, the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles both require the participation of the ESCRT-III sub-complex, and they differ in their initial membrane geometry before budding starts: the protein complex acts either from outside the membrane organelle (causing inward budding) or from within (causing outward budding). Several studies have reconstituted the action of the ESCRT-III subunits in supported bilayers and cell-sized vesicles mimicking the geometry occurring during MVBs formation (in-bud), but extracellular vesicle budding (out-bud) mechanisms remain less explored, because of the outstanding difficulties encountered in encapsulation of functional ESCRT-III in vesicles. Here, we provide a different approach that allows the recreation of the out-bud formation, by combining giant unilamellar vesicles as a membrane model and a microinjection system. The vesicles are immobilized prior to injection via weak adhesion to the chamber coverslip, which also ensures preserving the membrane excess area required for budding. After protein injection, vesicles exhibit outward budding. The approach presented in this work can be used in the future to disentangle the mechanisms underlying ESCRT-III-mediated fission, recreating the geometry of extracellular bud production, which remains a challenge. Moreover, the microinjection methodology can be also adapted to interrogate the action of other cytosolic components on the encapsulating membranous organelle. Copyright: © 2022 The Authors.

Keywords: adhesion, budding, electroformation, escrt-iii, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, light, microinjection, microparticles, plasma, Adhesion, Budding, Escrt-iii, Extracellular vesicles, Giant unilamellar vesicle (guv), Membrane, Microinjection

Agusil, Juan Pablo, Torras, Núria, Duch, Marta, Esteve, Jaume, Pérez-García, Lluïsa, Samitier, Josep, Plaza, José A., (2017). Highly anisotropic suspended planar-array chips with multidimensional sub-micrometric biomolecular patterns Advanced Functional Materials 27, 1605912

Suspended planar-array (SPA) chips embody millions of individual miniaturized arrays to work in extremely small volumes. Here, the basis of a robust methodology for the fabrication of SPA silicon chips with on-demand physical and chemical anisotropies is demonstrated. Specifically, physical traits are defined during the fabrication process with special focus on the aspect ratio, branching, faceting, and size gradient of the final chips. Additionally, the chemical attributes augment the functionality of the chips with the inclusion of complete coverage or patterns of selected biomolecules on the surface of the chips with contact printing techniques, offering an extremely high versatility, not only with the choice of the pattern shape and distribution but also in the choice of biomolecular inks to pattern. This approach increases the miniaturization of printed arrays in 3D structures by two orders of magnitude compared to those previously demonstrated. Finally, functional micrometric and sub-micrometric patterned features are demonstrated with an antibody binding assay with the recognition of the printed spots with labeled antibodies from solution. The selective addition of physical and chemical attributes on the suspended chips represents the basis for future biomedical assays performed within extremely small volumes.

Keywords: Microcontact printing, Microparticles, Molecular multiplexing, Polymer pen lithography, Silicon chip technology

Seo, K. D., Kwak, B. K., Sánchez, S., Kim, D. S., (2015). Microfluidic-assisted fabrication of flexible and location traceable organo-motor IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience , 14, (3), 298-304

In this paper, we fabricate a flexible and location traceable micromotor, called organo-motor, assisted by microfluidic devices and with high throughput. The organo-motors are composed of organic hydrogel material, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), which can provide the flexibility of their structure. For spatial and temporal traceability of the organo-motors under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION; Fe3O4) were incorporated into the PEGDA microhydrogels. Furthermore, a thin layer of platinum (Pt) was deposited onto one side of the SPION-PEGDA microhydrogels providing geometrical asymmetry and catalytic propulsion in aqueous fluids containing hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2. Furthermore, the motion of the organo-motor was controlled by a small external magnet enabled by the presence of SPION in the motor architecture.

Keywords: Flexible, Hydrogel, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microfluidics, Micromotor, Microparticle, Organo-motor, Poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, Self-propulsion, Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

Levato, Riccardo, Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A., Planell, Josep A., (2012). Preparation of biodegradable polylactide microparticles via a biocompatible procedure Macromolecular Bioscience 12, (4), 557-566

PLA MPs are prepared via a novel and toxic-chemical-free fabrication route using ethyl lactate, a green solvent and FDA-approved aroma. MPs are obtained by a solution jet break-up and solvent displacement method. Adjusting flow parameters allows the tuning of MPs size between 60 and 180 µm, with reduced polydispersity. Morphological analysis shows microporous particles with Janus-like surface. A fluorophore is successfully loaded into the MPs during their formation step. This versatile green solvent-based procedure is proven to be suitable for drug encapsulation and delivery applications. The method may be extended to different droplet generation techniques.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Biodegradable, Green solvents, Microparticles, Poly(lactic acid)