by Keyword: Blinking

López-Ortiz, M, Zamora, RA, Giannotti, MI, Gorostiza, P, (2023). The Protein Matrix of Plastocyanin Supports Long-Distance Charge Transport with Photosystem I and the Copper Ion Regulates Its Spatial Span and Conductance Acs Nano 17, 20334-20344

Charge exchange is the fundamental process that sustains cellular respiration and photosynthesis by shuttling electrons in a cascade of electron transfer (ET) steps between redox cofactors. While intraprotein charge exchange is well characterized in protein complexes bearing multiple redox sites, interprotein processes are less understood due to the lack of suitable experimental approaches and the dynamic nature of the interactions. Proteins constrained between electrodes are known to support electron transport (ETp) through the protein matrix even without redox cofactors, as the charges housed by the redox sites in ET are furnished by the electrodes. However, it is unknown whether protein ETp mechanisms apply to the interprotein medium present under physiological conditions. We study interprotein charge exchange between plant photosystem I (PSI) and its soluble redox partner plastocyanin (Pc) and address the role of the Pc copper center. Using electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (ECSTS) current-distance and blinking measurements, we quantify the spatial span of charge exchange between individual Pc/PSI pairs and ETp through transient Pc/PSI complexes. Pc devoid of the redox center (Pcapo) can exchange charge with PSI at longer distances than with the copper ion (Pcholo). Conductance bursts associated with Pcapo/PSI complex formation are higher than in Pcholo/PSI. Thus, copper ions are not required for long-distance Pc/PSI ETp but regulate its spatial span and conductance. Our results suggest that the redox center that carries the charge in Pc is not necessary to exchange it in interprotein ET through the aqueous solution and question the canonical view of tight complex binding between redox protein partners.

JTD Keywords: azurin, binding, blinking, crystal-structure, cupredoxin, current distance spectroscopy, electrochemical tunneling microscopy, proteinconductance, reduction, single metalloprotein, single molecule measurements, site, spectroscopy, Blinking, Cupredoxin, Current distance spectroscopy, Electrochemical tunneling microscopy, Interprotein electron transfer, Protein conductance, Single molecule measurements, State electron-transport

Dhiman, S, Andrian, T, Gonzalez, BS, Tholen, MME, Wang, YY, Albertazzi, L, (2022). Can super-resolution microscopy become a standard characterization technique for materials chemistry? Chemical Science 13, 2152-2166

The characterization of newly synthesized materials is a cornerstone of all chemistry and nanotechnology laboratories. For this purpose, a wide array of analytical techniques have been standardized and are used routinely by laboratories across the globe. With these methods we can understand the structure, dynamics and function of novel molecular architectures and their relations with the desired performance, guiding the development of the next generation of materials. Moreover, one of the challenges in materials chemistry is the lack of reproducibility due to improper publishing of the sample preparation protocol. In this context, the recent adoption of the reporting standard MIRIBEL (Minimum Information Reporting in Bio–Nano Experimental Literature) for material characterization and details of experimental protocols aims to provide complete, reproducible and reliable sample preparation for the scientific community. Thus, MIRIBEL should be immediately adopted in publications by scientific journals to overcome this challenge. Besides current standard spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, there is a constant development of novel technologies that aim to help chemists unveil the structure of complex materials. Among them super-resolution microscopy (SRM), an optical technique that bypasses the diffraction limit of light, has facilitated the study of synthetic materials with multicolor ability and minimal invasiveness at nanometric resolution. Although still in its infancy, the potential of SRM to unveil the structure, dynamics and function of complex synthetic architectures has been highlighted in pioneering reports during the last few years. Currently, SRM is a sophisticated technique with many challenges in sample preparation, data analysis, environmental control and automation, and moreover the instrumentation is still expensive. Therefore, SRM is currently limited to expert users and is not implemented in characterization routines. This perspective discusses the potential of SRM to transition from a niche technique to a standard routine method for material characterization. We propose a roadmap for the necessary developments required for this purpose based on a collaborative effort from scientists and engineers across disciplines.

JTD Keywords: blinking, fluorophore, intramolecular spirocyclization, localization, nanoparticles, resolution limit, reveals, single-molecule fluorescence, stimulated-emission, Characterization techniques, Diffraction, Distributed computer systems, Environmental management, Information reporting, Material chemistry, Materials characterization, Minimum information, Optical reconstruction microscopy, Optical resolving power, Sample preparation, Structure dynamics, Structure functions, Super-resolution microscopy, Synthesized materials