by Keyword: Branching

Duran, J, (2023). Role of Astrocytes in the Pathophysiology of Lafora Disease and Other Glycogen Storage Disorders Cells 12, 722

Lafora disease is a rare disorder caused by loss of function mutations in either the EPM2A or NHLRC1 gene. The initial symptoms of this condition are most commonly epileptic seizures, but the disease progresses rapidly with dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive deterioration and has a fatal outcome within 5–10 years after onset. The hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of poorly branched glycogen in the form of aggregates known as Lafora bodies in the brain and other tissues. Several reports have demonstrated that the accumulation of this abnormal glycogen underlies all the pathologic traits of the disease. For decades, Lafora bodies were thought to accumulate exclusively in neurons. However, it was recently identified that most of these glycogen aggregates are present in astrocytes. Importantly, astrocytic Lafora bodies have been shown to contribute to pathology in Lafora disease. These results identify a primary role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of Lafora disease and have important implications for other conditions in which glycogen abnormally accumulates in astrocytes, such as Adult Polyglucosan Body disease and the buildup of Corpora amylacea in aged brains.

JTD Keywords: abnormal glycogen, accumulation, aggregation, bodies, branching enzyme deficiency, corpora-amylacea, epilepsy, glycogen, lafora disease, mice, mouse model, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ubiquitin ligase, Glycogen, Neuroinflammation, Polyglucosan body disease

La Torre, A., Del Mar Masdeu, M., Cotrufo, T., Moubarak, R. S., Del Río, J. A., Comella, J. X., Soriano, E., Ureña, J. M., (2013). A role for the tyrosine kinase ACK1 in neurotrophin signaling and neuronal extension and branching Cell Death and Disease , 4, (4), e602

Neurotrophins are involved in many crucial cellular functions, including neurite outgrowth, synapse formation, and plasticity. Although these events have long been known, the molecular determinants underlying neuritogenesis have not been fully characterized. Ack1 (activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that Ack1 is a molecular constituent of neurotrophin signaling cascades in neurons and PC12 cells. We report that Ack1 interacts with Trk receptors and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and its kinase activity is increased in response to neurotrophins. Moreover, our data indicate that Ack1 acts upstream of the Akt and MAPK pathways. We show that Ack1 overexpression induces neuritic outgrowth and promotes branching in neurotrophin-treated neuronal cells, whereas the expression of Ack1 dominant negatives or short-hairpin RNAs counteract neurotrophin-stimulated differentiation. Our results identify Ack1 as a novel regulator of neurotrophin-mediated events in primary neurons and in PC12 cells.

JTD Keywords: Axonal, Branching, Dendritic, Neurotrophins, Tyrosine kinase