by Keyword: Continuous monitoring of acid–base status
Pla L, Berdún S, Mir M, Rivas L, Miserere S, Dulay S, Samitier J, Eixarch E, Illa M, Gratacós E, (2021). Non-invasive monitoring of pH and oxygen using miniaturized electrochemical sensors in an animal model of acute hypoxia Journal Of Translational Medicine 19, 53
© 2021, The Author(s). Background: One of the most prevalent causes of fetal hypoxia leading to stillbirth is placental insufficiency. Hemodynamic changes evaluated with Doppler ultrasound have been used as a surrogate marker of fetal hypoxia. However, Doppler evaluation cannot be performed continuously. As a first step, the present work aimed to evaluate the performance of miniaturized electrochemical sensors in the continuous monitoring of oxygen and pH changes in a model of acute hypoxia-acidosis. Methods: pH and oxygen electrochemical sensors were evaluated in a ventilatory hypoxia rabbit model. The ventilator hypoxia protocol included 3 differential phases: basal (100% FiO2), the hypoxia-acidosis period (10% FiO2) and recovery (100% FiO2). Sensors were tested in blood tissue (ex vivo sensing) and in muscular tissue (in vivo sensing). pH electrochemical and oxygen sensors were evaluated on the day of insertion (short-term evaluation) and pH electrochemical sensors were also tested after 5 days of insertion (long-term evaluation). pH and oxygen sensing were registered throughout the ventilatory hypoxia protocol (basal, hypoxia-acidosis, and recovery) and were compared with blood gas metabolites results from carotid artery catheterization (obtained with the EPOC blood analyzer). Finally, histological assessment was performed on the sensor insertion site. One-way ANOVA was used for the analysis of the evolution of acid-based metabolites and electrochemical sensor signaling results; a t-test was used for pre- and post-calibration analyses; and chi-square analyses for categorical variables. Results: At the short-term evaluation, both the pH and oxygen electrochemical sensors distinguished the basal and hypoxia-acidosis periods in both the in vivo and ex vivo sensing. However, only the ex vivo sensing detected the recovery period. In the long-term evaluation, the pH electrochemical sensor signal seemed to lose sensibility. Finally, histological assessment revealed no signs of alteration on the day of evaluation (short-term), whereas in the long-term evaluation a sub-acute inflammatory reaction adjacent to the implantation site was detected. Conclusions: Miniaturized electrochemical sensors represent a new generation of tools for the continuous monitoring of hypoxia-acidosis, which is especially indicated in high-risk pregnancies. Further studies including more tissue-compatible material would be required in order to improve long-term electrochemical sensing.
JTD Keywords: acute hypoxia-acidosis, continuous monitoring of acid-base status, continuous monitoring of acid–base status, electrochemical sensors, high-risk pregnancies, Acute hypoxia-acidosis, Continuous monitoring of acid–base status, Electrochemical sensors, High-risk pregnancies