by Keyword: Glass-Transition

Valenti, Sofia, del Valle, Luis Javier, Romanini, Michela, Mitjana, Meritxell, Puiggalí, Jordi, Tamarit, Josep Lluís, Macovez, Roberto, (2022). Drug-Biopolymer Dispersions: Morphology- and Temperature- Dependent (Anti)Plasticizer Effect of the Drug and Component-Specific Johari–Goldstein Relaxations International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 2456

Amorphous molecule-macromolecule mixtures are ubiquitous in polymer technology and are one of the most studied routes for the development of amorphous drug formulations. For these applications it is crucial to understand how the preparation method affects the properties of the mixtures. Here, we employ differential scanning calorimetry and broadband dielectric spectroscopy to investigate dispersions of a small-molecule drug (the Nordazepam anxiolytic) in biodegradable polylactide, both in the form of solvent-cast films and electrospun microfibres. We show that the dispersion of the same small-molecule compound can have opposite (plasticizing or antiplasticizing) effects on the segmental mobility of a biopolymer depending on preparation method, temperature, and polymer enantiomerism. We compare two different chiral forms of the polymer, namely, the enantiomeric pure, semicrystalline L-polymer (PLLA), and a random, fully amorphous copolymer containing both L and D monomers (PDLLA), both of which have lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than the drug. While the drug has a weak antiplasticizing effect on the films, consistent with its higher Tg, we find that it actually acts as a plasticizer for the PLLA microfibres, reducing their Tg by as much as 14 K at 30%-weight drug loading, namely, to a value that is lower than the Tg of fully amorphous films. The structural relaxation time of the samples similarly depends on chemical composition and morphology. Most mixtures displayed a single structural relaxation, as expected for homogeneous samples. In the PLLA microfibres, the presence of crystalline domains increases the structural relaxation time of the amorphous fraction, while the presence of the drug lowers the structural relaxation time of the (partially stretched) chains in the microfibres, increasing chain mobility well above that of the fully amorphous polymer matrix. Even fully amorphous homogeneous mixtures exhibit two distinct Johari–Goldstein relaxation processes, one for each chemical component. Our findings have important implications for the interpretation of the Johari–Goldstein process as well as for the physical stability and mechanical properties of microfibres with small-molecule additives.

JTD Keywords: amorphous pharmaceuticals, beta-relaxation, constant loss, crystallization, dielectric spectroscopy, dynamics, formulation morphology, glass transition, molecular mobility, nanofibers, polylactide, polymer enantiomerism, secondary relaxations, valium metabolite, viscous-liquids, Amorphous pharmaceuticals, Glass-transition, Secondary relaxations

Sunyer, R., Trepat, X., Fredberg, J. J., Farre, R., Navajas, D., (2009). The temperature dependence of cell mechanics measured by atomic force microscopy Physical Biology 6, (2), 25009

The cytoskeleton is a complex polymer network that regulates the structural stability of living cells. Although the cytoskeleton plays a key role in many important cell functions, the mechanisms that regulate its mechanical behaviour are poorly understood. Potential mechanisms include the entropic elasticity of cytoskeletal filaments, glassy-like inelastic rearrangements of cross-linking proteins and the activity of contractile molecular motors that sets the tensional stress (prestress) borne by the cytoskeleton filaments. The contribution of these mechanisms can be assessed by studying how cell mechanics depends on temperature. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of temperature on cell mechanics using atomic force microscopy. We measured the complex shear modulus (G*) of human alveolar epithelial cells over a wide frequency range (0.1-25.6 Hz) at different temperatures (13-37 degrees C). In addition, we probed cell prestress by mapping the contractile forces that cells exert on the substrate by means of traction microscopy. To assess the role of actomyosin contraction in the temperature-induced changes in G* and cell prestress, we inhibited the Rho kinase pathway of the myosin light chain phosphorylation with Y-27632. Our results show that with increasing temperature, cells become stiffer and more solid-like. Cell prestress also increases with temperature. Inhibiting actomyosin contraction attenuated the temperature dependence of G* and prestress. We conclude that the dependence of cell mechanics with temperature is dominated by the contractile activity of molecular motors.

JTD Keywords: Membrane Stress Failure, Frog Skeletal-Muscle, Extracellular-Matrix, Glass-Transition, Energy Landscape, Actin-Filaments, Living Cell, Single, Traction, Cytoskeleton