by Keyword: Hydraulic permeability
Malandrino, Andrea, Lacroix, Damien, Hellmich, Christian, Ito, Keita, Ferguson, Stephen J., Noailly, J., (2014). The role of endplate poromechanical properties on the nutrient availability in the intervertebral disc Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , 22, (7), 1053-1060
To investigate the relevance of the human vertebral endplate poromechanics on the fluid and metabolic transport from and to the intervertebral disc (IVD) based on educated estimations of the poromechanical parameter values of the bony endplate (BEP).
50 micro-models of different BEP samples were generated from μCTs of lumbar vertebrae and allowed direct determination of porosity values. Permeability values were calculated by using the micro-models, through the simulation of permeation via computational fluid dynamics. These educated ranges of porosity and permeability values were used as inputs for mechano-transport simulations to assess their effect on both the distributions of metabolites within an IVD model and the poromechanical calculations within the cartilaginous part of the endplate i.e., the cartilage endplate (CEP).
BEP effective permeability was highly correlated to local variations of porosity (R2 ≈ 0.88). Universal patterns between bone volume fraction and permeability arose from these results and from other experimental data in the literature. These variations in BEP permeability and porosity had negligible effects on the distributions of metabolites within the disc. In the CEP, the variability of the poromechanical properties of the BEP did not affect the predicted consolidation but induced higher fluid velocities.
The present paper provides the first sets of thoroughly identified BEP parameter values that can be further used in patient-specific poromechanical studies. Representing BEP structural changes through variations in poromechanical properties did not affect the diffusion of metabolites. However, attention might be paid to alterations in fluid velocities and cell mechano-sensing within the CEP.
JTD Keywords: Bony endplate, Spine mechanobiology, Intervertebral disc metabolites, Hydraulic Permeability, Bone Porosity, Poromechanics
Malandrino, Andrea, Noailly, Jerome, Lacroix, Damien, (2011). The effect of sustained compression on oxygen metabolic transport in the intervertebral disc decreases with degenerative changes PLoS Computational Biology Plos Computational Biology , 7, (8), 1-12
Intervertebral disc metabolic transport is essential to the functional spine and provides the cells with the nutrients necessary to tissue maintenance. Disc degenerative changes alter the tissue mechanics, but interactions between mechanical loading and disc transport are still an open issue. A poromechanical finite element model of the human disc was coupled with oxygen and lactate transport models. Deformations and fluid flow were linked to transport predictions by including strain-dependent diffusion and advection. The two solute transport models were also coupled to account for cell metabolism. With this approach, the relevance of metabolic and mechano-transport couplings were assessed in the healthy disc under loading-recovery daily compression. Disc height, cell density and material degenerative changes were parametrically simulated to study their influence on the calculated solute concentrations. The effects of load frequency and amplitude were also studied in the healthy disc by considering short periods of cyclic compression. Results indicate that external loads influence the oxygen and lactate regional distributions within the disc when large volume changes modify diffusion distances and diffusivities, especially when healthy disc properties are simulated. Advection was negligible under both sustained and cyclic compression. Simulating degeneration, mechanical changes inhibited the mechanical effect on transport while disc height, fluid content, nucleus pressure and overall cell density reductions affected significantly transport predictions. For the healthy disc, nutrient concentration patterns depended mostly on the time of sustained compression and recovery. The relevant effect of cell density on the metabolic transport indicates the disturbance of cell number as a possible onset for disc degeneration via alteration of the metabolic balance. Results also suggest that healthy disc properties have a positive effect of loading on metabolic transport. Such relation, relevant to the maintenance of the tissue functional composition, would therefore link disc function with disc nutrition.
JTD Keywords: Bovine nucleus pulposus, Human anulus fibrosus, Finite-element, Fluid-flow, Hydraulic permeability, Confined compression, Coupled diffusion, Solute transport, Water-content, Lumbar spine