by Keyword: Immunomodulation
Sadowska, J. M., Wei, F., Guo, J., Guillem-Marti, J., Lin, Z., Ginebra, M. P., Xiao, Y., (2019). The effect of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite and sintered β-tricalcium phosphate on osteoimmune reaction and osteogenesis Acta Biomaterialia 96, 605-618
Biomaterial implantation triggers inflammatory reactions. Understanding the effect of physicochemical features of biomaterials on the release of inflammatory cytokines from immune cells would be of great interest in view of designing bone graft materials to enhance the healing of bone defects. The present work investigated the interactions of two chemically and texturally different calcium phosphate (CaPs) substrates with macrophages, one of the main innate immune cells, and its further impact on osteogenic differentiation of bone forming cells. The behaviour of macrophages seeded on biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and sintered β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was assessed in terms of the release of inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic factors. The osteogenic differentiation of bone progenitor cells (bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and osteoblastic cell line (SaOS-2)) were subsequently studied by incubating with the conditioned medium induced by macrophage-CaPs interaction in order to reveal the effect of immune cell reaction to CaPs on osteogenic differentiation. It was found that the incubation of macrophages with CaPs substrates caused a decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines, more pronounced for β-TCP compared with CDHA showing significantly decreased IL-6, TNF-a, and iNOS. However, the macrophage-CDHA interaction resulted in a more favourable environment for osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts with more collagen type I production and osteogenic genes (Runx2, BSP) expression, suggesting that osteogenic differentiation of bone cells is not only determined by the nature of biomaterials, but also significantly influenced by the inflammatory environment generated by the interaction of immune cells and biomaterials.
Statement of Significance: The field of osteoimmunology highlights the importance of the cross-talk between immune and bone cells for effective bone regeneration. This tight interaction opens the door to new strategies that encompass the development of smart cell-instructive biomaterials which performance covers the events from early inflammation to osteogenesis. The present work links the anti-inflammatory and osteoimmunomodulatory features of synthetic bone grafts to their chemistry and texture, focussing on the cross-talk between macrophages and two major orchestrators of bone healing, namely primary mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts. The results emphasize the importance of the microenvironment created through the interaction between the substrate and the immune cells as it can stimulate osteogenic events and subsequently foster bone healing.
JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphates, Immunomodulation, Inflammation, Osteogenesis, Osteoimmunomodulation
Sadowska, Joanna M., Wei, Fei, Guo, Jia, Guillem-Marti, Jordi, Ginebra, Maria-Pau, Xiao, Yin, (2018). Effect of nano-structural properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite on osteoimmunomodulation Biomaterials 181, 318-332
Immune cells are sensitive to the microstructural and textural properties of materials. Tuning the structural features of synthetic bone grafts could be a valuable strategy to regulate the specific response of the immune system, which in turn modulates the activity of bone cells. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the structural characteristics of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) on the innate immune response of macrophages and the subsequent impact on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Murine RAW 264.7 cells were cultured, under standard and inflammatory conditions, on chemically identical CDHA substrates that varied in microstructure and porosity. The impact on osteogenesis was evaluated by incubating osteoblastic cells (SaOS-2) with RAW-CDHA conditioned extracts. The results showed that macrophages were sensitive to different textural and structural properties of CDHA. Under standard conditions, the impact of inflammatory cytokine production by RAW cells cultured on CDHA played a significant role in the degradation of substrates, suggesting the impact of resorptive behaviour of RAW cells on biomimetic surfaces. Osteoblast differentiation was stimulated by the conditioned media collected from RAW cells cultured on needle-like nanostructured CDHA. The results demonstrated that needle-like nanostructured CDHA was able to generate a favourable osteoimmune environment to regulate osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Under inflammatory conditions, the incubation of RAW cells with less porous CDHA resulted in a decreased gene expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphates, Biomimetic hydroxyapatite, Osteoimmunomodulation, Inflammation, Osteogenesis, Osteoclastogesis
Noguera-Ortega, Estela, Secanella-Fandos, Silvia, Eraña, Hasier, Gasión, Jofre, Rabanal, Rosa M., Luquin, Marina, Torrents, Eduard, Julián, Esther, (2016). Nonpathogenic Mycobacterium brumae inhibits bladder cancer growth in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo European Urology Focus , 2, (1), 67-76
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents tumour recurrence and progression in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). However, common adverse events occur, including BCG infections.
To find a mycobacterium with similar or superior antitumour activity to BCG but with greater safety.
In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo comparisons of the antitumour efficacy of nonpathogenic mycobacteria and BCG.
The in vitro antitumour activity of a broad set of mycobacteria was studied in seven different BC cell lines. The most efficacious was selected and its ex vivo capacity to activate immune cells and its in vivo antitumour activity in an orthotopic murine model of BC were investigated.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Growth inhibition of BC cells was the primary outcome measurement. Parametric and nonparametric tests were use to analyse the in vitro results, and a Kaplan-Meier test was applied to measure survival in mycobacteria-treated tumour-bearing mice.
Results and limitations
Mycobacterium brumae is superior to BCG in inhibiting low-grade BC cell growth, and has similar effects to BCG against high-grade cells. M. brumae triggers an indirect antitumour response by activating macrophages and the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood cells against BC cells. Although no significant differences were observed between BCG and M. brumae treatments in mice, M. brumae treatment prolonged survival in comparison to BCG treatment in tumour-bearing mice. In contrast to BCG, M. brumae does not persist intracellularly or in tumour-bearing mice, so the risk of infection is lower.
Our preclinical data suggest that M. brumae represents a safe and efficacious candidate as a therapeutic agent for non–muscle-invasive BC.
We investigated the antitumour activity of nonpathogenic mycobacteria in in vitro and in vivo models of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We found that Mycobacterium brumae effectively inhibits bladder cancer growth and helps the host immune system to eradicate cancer cells, and is a promising agent for antitumour immunotherapy.
JTD Keywords: Animal models, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Cytokines, Immunomodulation, Immunotherapy, Mycobacteria, Urothelial cell line
Cervera, M., Esteban, O., Gil, M., Gorris, M. T., Martínez, M. C., Peña, L., Cambra, M., (2010). Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance Transgenic Research , 19, (6), 1001-1015
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies.
JTD Keywords: CTV control, Immunomodulation, Plantibodies, Recombinant antibodies, Transgenic citrus