by Keyword: Lafora disease
Duran, J, (2023). Role of Astrocytes in the Pathophysiology of Lafora Disease and Other Glycogen Storage Disorders Cells 12, 722
Lafora disease is a rare disorder caused by loss of function mutations in either the EPM2A or NHLRC1 gene. The initial symptoms of this condition are most commonly epileptic seizures, but the disease progresses rapidly with dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive deterioration and has a fatal outcome within 5–10 years after onset. The hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of poorly branched glycogen in the form of aggregates known as Lafora bodies in the brain and other tissues. Several reports have demonstrated that the accumulation of this abnormal glycogen underlies all the pathologic traits of the disease. For decades, Lafora bodies were thought to accumulate exclusively in neurons. However, it was recently identified that most of these glycogen aggregates are present in astrocytes. Importantly, astrocytic Lafora bodies have been shown to contribute to pathology in Lafora disease. These results identify a primary role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of Lafora disease and have important implications for other conditions in which glycogen abnormally accumulates in astrocytes, such as Adult Polyglucosan Body disease and the buildup of Corpora amylacea in aged brains.
JTD Keywords: abnormal glycogen, accumulation, aggregation, bodies, branching enzyme deficiency, corpora-amylacea, epilepsy, glycogen, lafora disease, mice, mouse model, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, progressive myoclonus epilepsy, ubiquitin ligase, Glycogen, Neuroinflammation, Polyglucosan body disease
Varea, O, Guinovart, JJ, Duran, J, (2022). Malin restoration as proof of concept for gene therapy for Lafora disease Brain Commun 4, fcac168
Abstract Lafora disease is a fatal neurodegenerative childhood dementia caused by loss-of-function mutations in either the laforin or malin gene. The hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of abnormal glycogen aggregates known as Lafora bodies (LBs) in the brain and other tissues. These aggregates are responsible for the pathological features of the disease. As a monogenic disorder, Lafora disease is a good candidate for gene therapy-based approaches. However, most patients are diagnosed after the appearance of the first symptoms and thus when LBs are already present in the brain. In this context, it was not clear whether the restoration of a normal copy of the defective gene (either laforin or malin) would prove effective. Here we evaluated the effect of restoring malin in a malin-deficient mouse model of Lafora disease as a proof of concept for gene replacement therapy. To this end, we generated a malin-deficient mouse in which malin expression can be induced at a certain time. Our results reveal that malin restoration at an advanced stage of the disease arrests the accumulation of LBs in brain and muscle, induces the degradation of laforin and glycogen synthase bound to the aggregates, and ameliorates neuroinflammation. These results identify malin restoration as the first therapeutic strategy to show effectiveness when applied at advanced stages of Lafora disease.
JTD Keywords: accumulation, gene therapy, glycogen, lafora disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neurons, targets, Carbohydrate-binding domain, Glycogen, Neuroinflammation
Pellegrini, P, Hervera, A, Varea, O, Brewer, MK, López-Soldado, I, Guitart, A, Aguilera, M, Prats, N, del Río, JA, Guinovart, JJ, Duran, J, (2022). Lack of p62 Impairs Glycogen Aggregation and Exacerbates Pathology in a Mouse Model of Myoclonic Epilepsy of Lafora Molecular Neurobiology 59, 1214-1229
Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal childhood-onset dementia characterized by the extensive accumulation of glycogen aggregates—the so-called Lafora Bodies (LBs)—in several organs. The accumulation of LBs in the brain underlies the neurological phenotype of the disease. LBs are composed of abnormal glycogen and various associated proteins, including p62, an autophagy adaptor that participates in the aggregation and clearance of misfolded proteins. To study the role of p62 in the formation of LBs and its participation in the pathology of LD, we generated a mouse model of the disease (malinKO) lacking p62. Deletion of p62 prevented LB accumulation in skeletal muscle and cardiac tissue. In the brain, the absence of p62 altered LB morphology and increased susceptibility to epilepsy. These results demonstrate that p62 participates in the formation of LBs and suggest that the sequestration of abnormal glycogen into LBs is a protective mechanism through which it reduces the deleterious consequences of its accumulation in the brain. © 2021, The Author(s).
JTD Keywords: accumulation, astrocytes, autophagy receptors, contributes, deficient mice, epilepsy, glycogen, lafora bodies, lafora disease, malin, metabolism, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, p62, polyglucosan bodies, temporal-lobe epilepsy, Epilepsy, Glycogen, Inclusion-body formation, Lafora bodies, Lafora disease, Malin, Neuroinflammation, P62
Duran, J, Hervera, A, Markussen, KH, Varea, O, Lopez-Soldado, I, Sun, RC, del Rio, JA, Gentry, MS, Guinovart, JJ, (2021). Astrocytic glycogen accumulation drives the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration in Lafora disease Brain 144, 2349-2360
The hallmark of Lafora disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is the accumulation of intracellular glycogen aggregates called Lafora bodies. Until recently, it was widely believed that brain Lafora bodies were present exclusively in neurons and thus that Lafora disease pathology derived from their accumulation in this cell population. However, recent evidence indicates that Lafora bodies are also present in astrocytes. To define the role of astrocytic Lafora bodies in Lafora disease pathology, we deleted glycogen synthase specifically from astrocytes in a mouse model of the disease (malin(KO)). Strikingly, blocking glycogen synthesis in astrocytes-thus impeding Lafora bodies accumulation in this cell type-prevented the increase in neurodegeneration markers, autophagy impairment, and metabolic changes characteristic of the malin(KO) model. Conversely, mice that over-accumulate glycogen in astrocytes showed an increase in these markers. These results unveil the deleterious consequences of the deregulation of glycogen metabolism in astrocytes and change the perspective that Lafora disease is caused solely by alterations in neurons.
JTD Keywords: Bodies, Deficient mice, Epilepsy, Glycogen, Impairment, Lafora disease, Malin, Modulation, Mouse model, Neurodegeneration, Neuroinflammation, Neurons, Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Seizure susceptibility, Synthase