by Keyword: Low pass filter
Burgués, Javier, Marco, Santiago, (2020). Feature extraction for transient chemical sensor signals in response to turbulent plumes: Application to chemical source distance prediction Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 320, 128235
This paper describes the design of a linear phase low-pass differentiator filter with a finite impulse response (FIR) for extracting transient features of gas sensor signals (the so-called “bouts”). The detection of these bouts is relevant for estimating the distance of a gas source in a turbulent plume. Our current proposal addresses the shortcomings of previous ‘bout’ estimation methods, namely: (i) they were based in non-causal digital filters precluding real time operation, (ii) they used non-linear phase filters leading to waveform distortions and (iii) the smoothing action was achieved by two filters in cascade, precluding an easy tuning of filter performance. The presented method is based on a low-pass FIR differentiator, plus proper post-processing, allowing easy algorithmic implementation for real-time robotic exploration. Linear phase filters preserve signal waveform in the bandpass region for maximum reliability concerning both ‘bout’ detection and amplitude estimation. As a case study, we apply the proposed filter to predict the source distance from recordings obtained with metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors in a wind tunnel. We first perform a joint optimization of the cut-off frequency of the filter and the bout amplitude threshold, for different wind speeds, uncovering interesting relationships between these two parameters. We demonstrate that certain combinations of parameters can reduce the prediction error to 8 cm (in a distance range of 1.45 m) improving previously reported performances in the same dataset by a factor of 2.5. These results are benchmarked against traditional source distance estimators such as the mean, variance and maximum of the response. We also study how the length of the measurement window affects the performance of different signal features, and how to select the filter parameters to make the predictive models more robust to changes in wind speed. Finally, we provide a MATLAB implementation of the bout detection algorithm and all analysis code used in this study.
JTD Keywords: Gas sensors, Differentiator, Low pass filter, Metal oxide semiconductor, MOX sensors, Signal processing, Feature extraction, Gas source localization, Robotics
Estrada, L., Sarlabous, L., Lozano-García, M., Jané, R., Torres, A., (2019). Neural offset time evaluation in surface respiratory signals during controlled respiration Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 2344-2347
The electrical activity of the diaphragm measured by surface electromyography (sEMGdi) provides indirect information on neural respiratory drive. Moreover, it allows evaluating the ventilatory pattern from the onset and offset (ntoff) estimation of the neural inspiratory time. sEMGdi amplitude variation was quantified using the fixed sample entropy (fSampEn), a less sensitive method to the interference from cardiac activity. The detection of the ntoff is controversial, since it is located in an intermediate point between the maximum value and the cessation of sEMGdi inspiratory activity, evaluated by the fSampEn. In this work ntoff detection has been analyzed using thresholds between 40% and 100 % of the fSampEn peak. Furthermore, fSampEn was evaluated analyzing the r parameter from 0.05 to 0.6, using a m equal to 1 and a sliding window size equal to 250 ms. The ntoff has been compared to the offset time (toff) obtained from the airflow during a controlled respiratory protocol varying the fractional inspiratory time from 0.54 to 0.18 whilst the respiratory rate was constant at 16 bpm. Results show that the optimal threshold values were between 66.0 % to 77.0 % of the fSampEn peak value. r values between 0.25 to 0.50 were found suitable to be used with the fSampEn.
JTD Keywords: Protocols, Low pass filters, Electrodes, Standards, Band-pass filters, Muscles, Cutoff frequency
Castillo-Escario, Y., Rodríguez-Cañón, M., García-Alías, G., Jané, R., (2019). Onset detection to study muscle activity in reaching and grasping movements in rats Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 5113-5116
EMG signals reflect the neuromuscular activation patterns related to the execution of a certain movement or task. In this work, we focus on reaching and grasping (R&G) movements in rats. Our objective is to develop an automatic algorithm to detect the onsets and offsets of muscle activity and use it to study muscle latencies in R&G maneuvers. We had a dataset of intramuscular EMG signals containing 51 R&G attempts from 2 different animals. Simultaneous video recordings were used for segmentation and comparison. We developed an automatic onset/offset detector based on the ratio of local maxima of Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE). Then, we applied it to compute muscle latencies and other features related to the muscle activation pattern during R&G cycles. The automatic onsets that we found were consistent with visual inspection and video labels. Despite the variability between attempts and animals, the two rats shared a sequential pattern of muscle activations. Statistical tests confirmed the differences between the latencies of the studied muscles during R&G tasks. This work provides an automatic tool to detect EMG onsets and offsets and conducts a preliminary characterization of muscle activation during R&G movements in rats. This kind of approaches and data processing algorithms can facilitate the studies on upper limb motor control and motor impairment after spinal cord injury or stroke.
JTD Keywords: Muscles, Electromyography, Rats, Low pass filters, Microsoft Windows, Band-pass filters