by Keyword: Microelectrodes

Badiola-Mateos M, Di Giuseppe D, Paoli R, Lopez-Martinez MJ, Mencattini A, Samitier J, Martinelli E, (2021). A novel multi-frequency trans-endothelial electrical resistance (MTEER) sensor array to monitor blood-brain barrier integrity Sensors And Actuators B-Chemical 334,

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic cellular barrier that regulates brain nutrient supply, waste efflux, and paracellular diffusion through specialized junctional complexes. Finding a system to mimic and monitor BBB integrity (i.e., to be able to assess the effect of certain compounds on opening or closing the barrier) is of vital importance in several pathologies. This work aims to overcome some limitations of current barrier integrity measuring techniques thanks to a multi-layer microfluidic platform with integrated electrodes and Multi-frequency Trans-Endothelial Electrical Resistance (MTEER) in synergy with machine learning algorithms. MTEER measurements are performed across the barrier in a range of frequencies up to 10 MHz highlighting the presence of information on different frequency ranges. Results show that the proposed platform can detect barrier formation, opening, and regeneration afterwards, correlating with the results obtained from immunostaining of junctional complexes. This model presents novel techniques for a future biological barrier in-vitro studies that could potentially help on elucidating barrier opening or sealing on treatments with different drugs.

JTD Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cellular barrier integrity monitoring, impedance sensors, machine learning, microelectrodes, mteer, rapid prototyping, Blood-brain barrier, Cellular barrier integrity monitoring, Electrical impedance spectroscopy, Impedance sensors, Machine learning, Microelectrodes, Mteer, Rapid prototyping

Tahirbegi, I. B., Alvira, M., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2014). Simple and fast method for fabrication of endoscopic implantable sensor arrays Sensors 14, (7), 11416-11426

Here we have developed a simple method for the fabrication of disposable implantable all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISE) in an array format without using complex fabrication equipment or clean room facilities. The electrodes were designed in a needle shape instead of planar electrodes for a full contact with the tissue. The needle-shape platform comprises 12 metallic pins which were functionalized with conductive inks and ISE membranes. The modified microelectrodes were characterized with cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and optical interferometry. The surface area and roughness factor of each microelectrode were determined and reproducible values were obtained for all the microelectrodes on the array. In this work, the microelectrodes were modified with membranes for the detection of pH and nitrate ions to prove the reliability of the fabricated sensor array platform adapted to an endoscope.

JTD Keywords: Chemical sensors, Cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemistry, Endoscopy, Fabrication, Implants (surgical), Microelectrodes, Needles, Nitrates, Scanning electron microscopy, Biomedicine, Fabricated sensors, Fabrication equipment, Implantable devices, Implantable sensors, Optical interferometry, Planar electrode, Roughness factor, Ion selective electrodes

Gustavsson, J., Ginebra, M. P., Planell, J., Engel, E., (2012). Electrochemical microelectrodes for improved spatial and temporal characterization of aqueous environments around calcium phosphate cements Acta Biomaterialia 8, (1), 386-393

Calcium phosphate compounds can potentially influence cellular fate through ionic substitutions. However, to be able to turn such solution-mediated processes into successful directors of cellular response, a perfect understanding of the material-induced chemical reactions in situ is required. We therefore report on the application of home-made electrochemical microelectrodes, tested as pH and chloride sensors, for precise spatial and temporal characterization of different aqueous environments around calcium phosphate-based biomaterials prepared from α-tricalcium phosphate using clinically relevant liquid to powder ratios. The small size of the electrodes allowed for online measurements in traditionally inaccessible in vitro environments, such as the immediate material-liquid interface and the interior of curing bone cement. The kinetic data obtained has been compared to theoretical sorption models, confirming that the proposed setup can provide key information for improved understanding of the biochemical environment imposed by chemically reactive biomaterials.

JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Ion sorption, Iridium oxide, Sensors, Animals, Biocompatible Materials, Bone Cements, Calcium Phosphates, Cells, Cultured, Chlorides, Electrochemical Techniques, Gold, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Hydroxyapatites, Iridium, Materials Testing, Microelectrodes, Powders, Silver, Silver Compounds, Water

Kuphal, M., Mills, C.A., Korri-Youssoufi, H., Samitier, J., (2012). Polymer-based technology platform for robust electrochemical sensing using gold microelectrodes Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 161, (1), 279-284

Rapid and inexpensive development of electrochemical sensors with good exploitation potential may be produced using a polymer as a substrate material. However, fabrication of polymer-based sensors is challenging. Using photolithography and etching of gold-coated poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalate) (PEN), we have succeeded in fabricating disk-shaped and interdigitated microelectrodes (uEs). The electrodes have an excellent adhesion to the polymer and are encapsulated using a novel room-temperature process, applicable for low-cost, high-throughput fabrication. The PEN surface has been characterized in respect of wettability, surface energy and surface roughness. Finally, the electrodes give stable and reproducible electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry responses, using the redox couple ferrocyanide and ruthenium hexamine. The results demonstrate the robustness and functionality of the polymer-based sensor platform with minimum feature sizes of 6 um.

JTD Keywords: Poly(ethylene naphthalate), Photolithography, Microelectrodes, Interdigitated electrodes, Electrochemical characterization, Electrochemical sensor

Illa, X., Rodriguez-Trujillo, R., Ordeig, O., De Malsche, W., Homs-Corbera, A., Gardeniers, H., Desmet, G., Kutter, J. P., Samitier, J., Romano-Rodríguez, A., (2010). Simultaneous impedance and fluorescence detection of proteins in a cyclo olefin polymer chip containing a column with an ordered pillar array with integrated gold microelectrodes MicroTAS 2010 14th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences , UoG (Gorningen, The Netherlands) 2, 1280-1282

In this work, we report the detection of proteins by means of simultaneous fluorescence and impedance measurements in a cyclo olefin polymer (COP) chip containing an ordered pillar array column, used for reversed-phase liquid chromatography, with integrated microband gold electrodes at the end of the channel.

JTD Keywords: Cyclo olefin polymer, Gold microelectrodes, Impedance, Pillar array, Protein detection

Errachid, A., Mills, C. A., Pla, M., Lopez, M. J., Villanueva, G., Bausells, J., Crespo, E., Teixidor, F., Samitier, J., (2008). Focused ion beam production of nanoelectrode arrays Materials Science & Engineering C 5th Maghreb/Europe Meeting on Materials and Their Applications for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors (MADICA 2006) (ed. -----), Elsevier Science (Mahdia, Tunisia) 28, (5-6), 777-780

We present a method for the production of nanoelectrodes using focussed ion beam techniques (FIB). The electrodes utilise nanometric holes milled in a silicon nitride based pasivation layer, followed by wet etching of a silicon oxide based pasivation layer, to expose an underlying gold electrode. After functionalisation using a surface assembled monolayer and an electrochemically grown polypyrrole, these gold nanoelectrodes have been tested, via cyclic voltammetry, in the detection of [Fe(CN)(6)](4-/3-) ions. The nanoelectrodes will be used to investigate the electrical properties of nanometric biological specimen.

JTD Keywords: Neutral carrier, Solid contact, Microelectrodes, Immobilization