by Keyword: NMR

Eills, J, Azagra, M, Gómez-Cabeza, D, Tayler, MCD, Marco-Rius, I, (2024). Polarization losses from the nonadiabatic passage of hyperpolarized solutions through metallic components Journal Of Magnetic Resonance Open 18, 100144

From complex -mixture analysis to in vivo molecular imaging, applications of liquid -state nuclear spin hyperpolarization have expanded widely over recent years. In most cases, hyperpolarized solutions are generated and transported from the polarization instrument to the measurement device. The sample hyperpolarization usually survives this transport, since the changes in magnetic fields that are external to the sample are typically adiabatic (slow) with respect to the internal nuclear spin dynamics. The passage of polarized samples through weakly magnetic components such as stainless steel syringe needles and ferrules is not always adiabatic, can lead to near -complete destruction of the magnetization. To avoid this effect becoming "folklore"in field of hyperpolarized NMR, we present a systematic investigation to highlight the problem and investigate possible solutions. Experiments were carried out on: (i) dissolution-DNP-polarized [1-13C]pyruvate with detection at 1.4 T, and (ii) 1.5 -T -polarized H2O with NMR detection at 2.5 mu T. We show that the degree adiabaticity of solutions passing through metal parts is intrinsically unpredictable, likely depending on factors such as solution flow rate, degree of remanent ferromagnetism in the metal, and nuclear spin However, the magnetization destruction effects can be suppressed by application of an external field order of 0.1-10 mT.

JTD Keywords: Benchtop nmr, Hyperpolarization, Low-field mri, Non-adiabatic, Para-hydrogen, Spin relaxation

Eills, J, Picazo-Frutos, R, Bondar, O, Cavallari, E, Carrera, C, Barker, SJ, Utz, M, Herrero-Gómez, A, Marco-Rius, I, Tayler, MCD, Aime, S, Reineri, F, Budker, D, Blanchard, JW, (2023). Enzymatic Reactions Observed with Zero- and Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analytical Chemistry 95, 17997-18005

We demonstrate that enzyme-catalyzed reactions can be observed in zero- and low-field NMR experiments by combining recent advances in parahydrogen-based hyperpolarization methods with state-of-the-art magnetometry. Specifically, we investigated two model biological processes: the conversion of fumarate into malate, which is used in vivo as a marker of cell necrosis, and the conversion of pyruvate into lactate, which is the most widely studied metabolic process in hyperpolarization-enhanced imaging. In addition to this, we constructed a microfluidic zero-field NMR setup to perform experiments on microliter-scale samples of [1-C-13]-fumarate in a lab-on-a-chip device. Zero- to ultralow-field (ZULF) NMR has two key advantages over high-field NMR: the signals can pass through conductive materials (e.g., metals), and line broadening from sample heterogeneity is negligible. To date, the use of ZULF NMR for process monitoring has been limited to studying hydrogenation reactions. In this work, we demonstrate this emerging analytical technique for more general reaction monitoring and compare zero- vs low-field detection.

JTD Keywords: Nmr j-spectroscopy

Barskiy, DA, Blanchard, JW, Budker, D, Stern, Q, Eills, J, Elliott, SJ, Picazo-Frutos, R, Garcon, A, Jannin, S, Koptyug, IV, (2023). Possible Applications of Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Conjunction with Zero- to Ultralow-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applied Magnetic Resonance 54, 1221-1240

The combination of a powerful and broadly applicable nuclear hyperpolarization technique with emerging (near-)zero-field modalities offers novel opportunities in a broad range of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging applications, including biomedical diagnostics, monitoring catalytic reactions within metal reactors and many others. These are discussed along with a roadmap for future developments.

JTD Keywords: Couplings, Hyperpolarization, Nmr, Parahydrogen, Phase, Radicals, Time

Yeste, J, Azagra, M, Ortega, MA, Portela, A, Matajsz, G, Herrero-Gómez, A, Kim, Y, Sriram, R, Kurhanewicz, J, Vigneron, DB, Marco-Rius, I, (2023). Parallel detection of chemical reactions in a microfluidic platform using hyperpolarized nuclear magnetic resonance Lab On A Chip 23, 4950-4958

The sensitivity of NMR may be enhanced by more than four orders of magnitude via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP), potentially allowing real-time, in situ analysis of chemical reactions. However, there has been no widespread use of the technique for this application and the major limitation has been the low experimental throughput caused by the time-consuming polarization build-up process at cryogenic temperatures and fast decay of the hyper-intense signal post dissolution. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a microfluidic device compatible with dDNP-MR spectroscopic imaging methods for detection of reactants and products in chemical reactions in which up to 8 reactions can be measured simultaneously using a single dDNP sample. Multiple MR spectroscopic data sets can be generated under the same exact conditions of hyperpolarized solute polarization, concentration, pH, and temperature. A proof-of-concept for the technology is demonstrated by identifying the reactants in the decarboxylation of pyruvate via hydrogen peroxide (e.g. 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate, peroxymonocarbonate and CO2). dDNP-MR allows tracing of fast chemical reactions that would be barely detectable at thermal equilibrium by MR. We envisage that dDNP-MR spectroscopic imaging combined with microfluidics will provide a new high-throughput method for dDNP enhanced MR analysis of multiple components in chemical reactions and for non-destructive in situ metabolic analysis of hyperpolarized substrates in biological samples for laboratory and preclinical research.

JTD Keywords: injections, nmr, pyruvate, Polarization

Chuchkova, L, Bodenstedt, S, Picazo-Frutos, R, Eills, J, Tretiak, O, Hu, YA, Barskiy, DA, de Santis, J, Tayler, MCD, Budker, D, Sheberstov, KF, (2023). Magnetometer-Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Photochemically Hyperpolarized Molecules Journal Of Physical Chemistry Letters 14, 6814-6822

Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) enables nuclear spin ordering by irradiating samples with light. Polarized spins are conventionally detected via high-field chemical-shift-resolved NMR (above 0.1 T). In this Letter, we demonstrate in situ low-field photo-CIDNP measurements using a magnetically shielded fast-field-cycling NMR setup detecting Larmor precession via atomic magnetometers. For solutions comprising mM concentrations of the photochemically polarized molecules, hyperpolarized 1H magnetization is detected by pulse-acquired NMR spectroscopy. The observed NMR line widths are about 5 times narrower than normally anticipated in high-field NMR and are systematically affected by light irradiation during the acquisition period, reflecting a reduction of the transverse relaxation time constant, T2*, on the order of 10%. Magnetometer-detected photo-CIDNP spectroscopy enables straightforward observation of spin-chemistry processes in the ambient field range from a few nT to tens of mT. Potential applications of this measuring modality are discussed.

JTD Keywords: field-dependence, mechanism, nmr, parahydrogen, photo-cidnp, polarization, quinone, spin-hyperpolarization, Radical-pair

Schmidt, AB, Eills, J, Dagys, L, Gierse, M, Bock, M, Lucas, S, Bock, M, Schwartz, I, Zaitsev, M, Chekmenev, EY, Knecht, S, (2023). Over 20% Carbon-13 Polarization of Perdeuterated Pyruvate Using Reversible Exchange with Parahydrogen and Spin-Lock Induced Crossing at 50 μT Journal Of Physical Chemistry Letters 14, 5305-5309

Carbon-13 hyperpolarized pyruvate is about to become the next-generation contrast agent for molecular magnetic resonance imaging of cancer and other diseases. Here, efficient and rapid pyruvate hyperpolarization is achieved via signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) with parahydrogen through synergistic use of substrate deuteration, alternating, and static microtesla magnetic fields. Up to 22 and 6% long-lasting 13C polarization (T1 = 3.7 ± 0.25 and 1.7 ± 0.1 min) is demonstrated for the C1 and C2 nuclear sites, respectively. The remarkable polarization levels become possible as a result of favorable relaxation dynamics at the microtesla fields. The ultralong polarization lifetimes will be conducive to yielding high polarization after purification, quality assurance, and injection of the hyperpolarized molecular imaging probes. These results pave the way to future in vivo translation of carbon-13 hyperpolarized molecular imaging probes prepared by this approach.

JTD Keywords: hydrogen, nmr, Sabre

Madrid-Gambin, F, Oller, S, Marco, S, Pozo, OJ, Andres-Lacueva, C, Llorach, R, (2023). Quantitative plasma profiling by 1H NMR-based metabolomics: impact of sample treatment Frontiers In Molecular Biosciences 10, 1125582

Introduction: There is evidence that sample treatment of blood-based biosamples may affect integral signals in nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. The presence of macromolecules in plasma/serum samples makes investigating low-molecular-weight metabolites challenging. It is particularly relevant in the targeted approach, in which absolute concentrations of selected metabolites are often quantified based on the area of integral signals. Since there are a few treatments of plasma/serum samples for quantitative analysis without a universally accepted method, this topic remains of interest for future research. Methods: In this work, targeted metabolomic profiling of 43 metabolites was performed on pooled plasma to compare four methodologies consisting of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) editing, ultrafiltration, protein precipitation with methanol, and glycerophospholipid solid-phase extraction (g-SPE) for phospholipid removal; prior to NMR metabolomics analysis. The effect of the sample treatments on the metabolite concentrations was evaluated using a permutation test of multiclass and pairwise Fisher scores. Results: Results showed that methanol precipitation and ultrafiltration had a higher number of metabolites with coefficient of variation (CV) values above 20%. G-SPE and CPMG editing demonstrated better precision for most of the metabolites analyzed. However, differential quantification performance between procedures were metabolite-dependent. For example, pairwise comparisons showed that methanol precipitation and CPMG editing were suitable for quantifying citrate, while g-SPE showed better results for 2-hydroxybutyrate and tryptophan. Discussion: There are alterations in the absolute concentration of various metabolites that are dependent on the procedure. Considering these alterations is essential before proceeding with the quantification of treatment-sensitive metabolites in biological samples for improving biomarker discovery and biological interpretations. The study demonstrated that g-SPE and CPMG editing are effective methods for removing proteins and phospholipids from plasma samples for quantitative NMR analysis of metabolites. However, careful consideration should be given to the specific metabolites of interest and their susceptibility to the sample treatment procedures. These findings contribute to the development of optimized sample preparation protocols for metabolomics studies using NMR spectroscopy.Copyright © 2023 Madrid-Gambin, Oller, Marco, Pozo, Andres-Lacueva and Llorach.

JTD Keywords: binding, h-1-nmr spectroscopy, human serum, lactate, metabolites, nuclear magnetic resonance, plasma, protein, quantification, quantitative analysis, sample treatment, Metabolomics, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear-magnetic-resonance, Plasma, Quantification, Quantitative analysis, Sample treatment

Eills, J, Budker, D, Cavagnero, S, Chekmenev, EY, Elliott, SJ, Jannin, S, Lesage, A, Matysik, J, Meersmann, T, Prisner, T, Reimer, JA, Yang, HM, Koptyug, IV, (2023). Spin Hyperpolarization in Modern Magnetic Resonance Chemical Reviews 123, 1417-1551

Magnetic resonance techniques are successfully utilized in a broad range of scientific disciplines and in various practical applications, with medical magnetic resonance imaging being the most widely known example. Currently, both fundamental and applied magnetic resonance are enjoying a major boost owing to the rapidly developing field of spin hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization techniques are able to enhance signal intensities in magnetic resonance by several orders of magnitude, and thus to largely overcome its major disadvantage of relatively low sensitivity. This provides new impetus for existing applications of magnetic resonance and opens the gates to exciting new possibilities. In this review, we provide a unified picture of the many methods and techniques that fall under the umbrella term "hyperpolarization" but are currently seldom perceived as integral parts of the same field. Specifically, before delving into the individual techniques, we provide a detailed analysis of the underlying principles of spin hyperpolarization. We attempt to uncover and classify the origins of hyperpolarization, to establish its sources and the specific mechanisms that enable the flow of polarization from a source to the target spins. We then give a more detailed analysis of individual hyperpolarization techniques: the mechanisms by which they work, fundamental and technical requirements, characteristic applications, unresolved issues, and possible future directions. We are seeing a continuous growth of activity in the field of spin hyperpolarization, and we expect the field to flourish as new and improved hyperpolarization techniques are implemented. Some key areas for development are in prolonging polarization lifetimes, making hyperpolarization techniques more generally applicable to chemical/biological systems, reducing the technical and equipment requirements, and creating more efficient excitation and detection schemes. We hope this review will facilitate the sharing of knowledge between subfields within the broad topic of hyperpolarization, to help overcome existing challenges in magnetic resonance and enable novel applications.

JTD Keywords: electron-paramagnetic-resonance, high-resolution nmr, hydrogen-induced polarization, level anti-crossings, long-lived states, parahydrogen-induced polarization, photosynthetic reaction-center, reversible exchange catalysis, solid-state nmr, Dynamic-nuclear-polarization

Bartova, S, Madrid-Gambin, F, Fernandez, L, Carayol, J, Meugnier, E, Segrestin, B, Delage, P, Vionnet, N, Boizot, A, Laville, M, Vidal, H, Marco, S, Hager, J, Moco, S, (2022). Grape polyphenols decrease circulating branched chain amino acids in overfed adults Front Nutr 9, 998044

Introduction and aimsDietary polyphenols have long been associated with health benefits, including the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases. Overfeeding was shown to rapidly induce weight gain and fat mass, associated with mild insulin resistance in humans, and thus represents a suitable model of the metabolic complications resulting from obesity. We studied the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape extract supplementation on the plasma metabolome during an overfeeding intervention in adults, in two randomized parallel controlled clinical trials.MethodsBlood plasma samples from 40 normal weight to overweight male adults, submitted to a 31-day overfeeding (additional 50% of energy requirement by a high calorie-high fructose diet), given either 2 g/day grape polyphenol extract or a placebo at 0, 15, 21, and 31 days were analyzed (Lyon study). Samples from a similarly designed trial on females (20 subjects) were collected in parallel (Lausanne study). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was conducted to characterize metabolome changes induced by overfeeding and associated effects from polyphenol supplementation. The clinical trials are registered under the numbers NCT02145780 and NCT02225457 atResultsChanges in plasma levels of many metabolic markers, including branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ketone bodies and glucose in both placebo as well as upon polyphenol intervention were identified in the Lyon study. Polyphenol supplementation counterbalanced levels of BCAA found to be induced by overfeeding. These results were further corroborated in the Lausanne female study.ConclusionAdministration of grape polyphenol-rich extract over 1 month period was associated with a protective metabolic effect against overfeeding in adults.

JTD Keywords: branched chain amino acids, grape polyphenols, human trials, metabolism, metabolomics, nmr, obesity, Branched chain amino acids, Grape polyphenols, Human trials, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Nmr, Obesity, Overfeeding

Azagra, M, Pose, E, De Chiara, F, Perez, M, Avitabile, E, Servitja, JM, Brugnara, L, Ramon-Azcón, J, Marco-Rius, I, (2022). Ammonium quantification in human plasma by proton nuclear magnetic resonance for staging of liver fibrosis in alcohol-related liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nmr In Biomedicine 35, e4745

Liver fibrosis staging is a key element driving the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease. Currently, biopsy is the only technique capable of diagnosing liver fibrosis in patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ArLD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) unequivocally. Non-invasive (e.g. plasma-based) biomarker assays are attractive tools to diagnose and stage disease, yet must prove that they are reliable and sensitive to be used clinically. Here we demonstrate 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance as a method to rapidly quantify the endogenous concentration of ammonium ions from human plasma extracts and show their ability to report upon early and advanced stages of ArLD and NAFLD. We show that, irrespective of the disease aetiology, ammonium concentration is a more robust and informative marker of fibrosis stage than current clinically assessed blood hepatic biomarkers. Subject to validation in larger cohorts, the study indicates that the method can provide accurate and rapid staging of ArLD and NAFLD without need for an invasive biopsy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: ammonium quantification, blood biomarkers, chronic liver disease, disease biomarkers, hepatic dysfunction, nmr, pathogenesis, Ammonium quantification, Hepatic dysfunction, Hepatic-encephalopathy

Van Dyke, ET, Eills, J, Picazo-Frutos, R, Sheberstov, KF, Hu, YA, Budker, D, Barskiy, DA, (2022). Relayed hyperpolarization for zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance Science Advances 8, eabp9242

Zero- to ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance (ZULF NMR) is a rapidly developing form of spectroscopy that provides rich spectroscopic information in the absence of large magnetic fields. However, signal acquisition still requires a mechanism for generating a bulk magnetic moment for detection, and the currently used methods only apply to a limited pool of chemicals or come at prohibitively high cost. We demonstrate that the parahydrogen-based SABRE (signal amplification by reversible exchange)-Relay method can be used as a more general means of generating hyperpolarized analytes for ZULF NMR by observing zero-field J-spectra of [C-13]-methanol, [1-C-13]-ethanol, and [2(-13) C]-ethanol in both C-13-isotopically enriched and natural abundance samples. We explore the magnetic field dependence of the SABRE-Relay efficiency and show the existence of a second maximum at 19.0 +/- 0.3 mT. Despite presence of water, SABRE-Relay is used to hyperpolarize ethanol extracted from a store-bought sample of vodka (%P-H similar to 0.1%).

JTD Keywords: Nmr, Para-hydrogen, Sabre, Spectroscopy

Marti-Muñoz, Joan, Xuriguera, Elena, Layton, John W., Planell, Josep A., Rankin, Stephen E., Engel, Elisabeth, Castaño, Oscar, (2019). Feasible and pure P2O5-CaO nanoglasses: An in-depth NMR study of synthesis for the modulation of the bioactive ion release Acta Biomaterialia 94, 574-584

The use of bioactive glasses (e.g. silicates, phosphates, borates) has demonstrated to be an effective therapy for the restoration of bone fractures, wound healing and vascularization. Their partial dissolution towards the surrounding tissue has shown to trigger positive bioactive responses, without the necessity of using growth factors or cell therapy, which reduces money-costs, side effects and increases their translation to the clinics. However, bioactive glasses often need from stabilizers (e.g. SiO44−, Ti4+, Co2+, etc.) that are not highly abundant in the body and which metabolization is not fully understood. In this study, we were focused on synthesizing pure calcium phosphate glasses without the presence of such stabilizers. We combined a mixture of ethylphosphate and calcium 2-methoxyethoxide to synthesize nanoparticles with different compositions and degradability. Synthesis was followed by an in-depth nuclear magnetic resonance characterization, complemented with other techniques that helped us to correlate the chemical structure of the glasses with their physiochemical properties and reaction mechanism. After synthesis, the organically modified xerogel (i.e. calcium monoethylphosphate) was treated at 200 or 350 °C and its solubility was maintained and controlled due to the elimination of organics, increase of phosphate-calcium interactions and phosphate polycondensation. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting the first sol-gel synthesis of binary (P2O5-CaO) calcium phosphate glass nanoparticles in terms of continuous polycondensated phosphate chains structure without the addition of extra ions. The main goal is to straightforward the synthesis, to get a safer metabolization and to modulate the bioactive ion release. Additionally, we shed light on the chemical structure, reaction mechanism and properties of calcium phosphate glasses with high calcium contents, which nowadays are poorly understood. Statement of Significance The use of bioactive inorganic materials (i.e. bioactive ceramics, glass-ceramics and glasses) for biomedical applications is attractive due to their good integration with the host tissue without the necessity of adding exogenous cells or growth factors. In particular, degradable calcium phosphate glasses are completely resorbable, avoiding the retention in the body of the highly stable silica network of silicate glasses, and inducing a more controllable degradability than bioactive ceramics. However, most calcium phosphate glasses include the presence of stabilizers (e.g. Ti4+, Na+, Co2+), which metabolization is not fully understood and complicates their synthesis. The development of binary calcium phosphate glasses with controlled degradability reduces these limitations, offering a simple and completely metabolizable material with higher transfer to the clinics.

JTD Keywords: Calcium phosphate glasses, Sol-gel process, NMR spectroscopy, Ion release, Biomaterials

Cordeiro, T. N., Schmidt, H., Madrid, C., Juarez, A., Bernado, P., Griesinger, C., Garcia, J., Pons, M., (2011). Indirect DNA readout by an H-NS related protein: Structure of the DNA complex of the C-terminal domain of Ler PLoS Pathogens Plos Pathogens , 7, (11), 12

Ler, a member of the H-NS protein family, is the master regulator of the LEE pathogenicity island in virulent Escherichia coli strains. Here, we determined the structure of a complex between the DNA-binding domain of Ler (CT-Ler) and a 15-mer DNA duplex. CT-Ler recognizes a preexisting structural pattern in the DNA minor groove formed by two consecutive regions which are narrower and wider, respectively, compared with standard B-DNA. The compressed region, associated with an AT-tract, is sensed by the side chain of Arg90, whose mutation abolishes the capacity of Ler to bind DNA. The expanded groove allows the approach of the loop in which Arg90 is located. This is the first report of an experimental structure of a DNA complex that includes a protein belonging to the H-NS family. The indirect readout mechanism not only explains the capacity of H-NS and other H-NS family members to modulate the expression of a large number of genes but also the origin of the specificity displayed by Ler. Our results point to a general mechanism by which horizontally acquired genes may be specifically recognized by members of the H-NS family.

JTD Keywords: Enteropathogenic escherichia-coli, Nucleoid-associated protein, Nmr structure determination, Encoded regulator ler, Controls expression, Binding domain

Garcia, J., Madrid, C., Cendra, M., Juarez, A., Pons, M., (2009). N9L and L9N mutations toggle Hha binding and hemolysin regulation by Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae H-NS FEBS Letters , 583, (17), 2911-2916

Proteins of the Hha/YmoA family co-regulate with H-NS the expression of virulence factors in Enterobacteriaceae. Vibrio cholerae lacks Hha-like proteins and its H-NS (vcH-NS) is unable to bind Hha, in spite of the conservation of a key residue for Hha binding by Escherichia coli H-NS (ecH-NS). Exchange of the residues in position 9 between vcH-NS and ecH-NS strongly reduces Hha binding by ecH-NS and introduces it in vcH- NS. These mutations strongly affect the repression of the hemolysin operon in E. coli and the electrophoretic mobility of complexes formed with a DNA fragment containing its regulatory region.

JTD Keywords: Nucleoid associated protein, H-NS, Hha, Transcription repression, NMR, Electrophoretic mobility shift assays

Domènech, Ò., Morros, A., Cabañas, M. E., Teresa Montero, M., Hernéndez-Borrell, J., (2007). Supported planar bilayers from hexagonal phases Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes , 1768, (1), 100-106

In this work the presence of inverted hexagonal phases HII of 1-palmitoy-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and cardiolipin (CL) (0.8:0.2, mol/mol) in the presence of Ca2+ were observed via 31P-NMR spectroscopy. When suspensions of the same composition were extended onto mica, HII phases transformed into structures which features are those of supported planar bilayers (SPBs). When characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the SPBs revealed the existence of two laterally segregated domains (the interdomain height being ∼ 1 nm). Cytochrome c (cyt c), which binds preferentially to acidic phospholipids like CL, was used to demonstrate the nature of the domains. We used 1-anilinonaphtalen-8-sulfonate (ANS) to demonstrate that in the presence of cyt c, the fluorescence of ANS decreased significantly in lamellar phases. Conversely, the ANS binding to HII phases was negligible. When cyt c was injected into AFM fluid imaging cells, where SPBs of POPE:CL had previously formed poorly defined structures, protein aggregates (∼ 100 nm diameter) were ostensibly observed only on the upper domains, which suggests not only that they are mainly formed by CL, but also provides evidence of bilayer formation from HII phases. Furthermore, a model for the nanostructure of the SPBs is herein proposed.

JTD Keywords: 31P-NMR, AFM, ANS fluorescence, Cytochrome c (cyt c), Hexagonal phase (HII), Liposome, Supported planar bilayers (SPBs)