by Keyword: Poroelasticity

Malandrino, Andrea, Pozo, Jose Maria, Castro-Mateos, Isaac, Frangi, Alejandro F., van Rijsbergen, Marc M., Ito, Keita, Wilke, Hans-Joachim, Dao, Tien Tuan, Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine, Noailly, Jerome, (2015). On the relative relevance of subject-specific geometries and degeneration-specific mechanical properties for the study of cell death in human intervertebral disc models Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 3, (Article 5), 1-15

Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disk (IVD) properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disk degenerative changes are often modeled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disk geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disk degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disk cell nutrition, a potentially important factor in disk tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro, IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disk geometry on cell viability. While classic disk poro-mechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes, additional simulation of tissue damage allowed model validation and gave degeneration-dependent material properties related to osmotic pressure and water loss, and to increased fibrosis. Surprisingly, nutrition-induced cell death was independent of the grade-dependent material properties, but was favored by increased diffusion distances in large IVDs. Our results suggest that in situ geometrical screening of IVD morphology might help to anticipate particular mechanisms of disk degeneration.

JTD Keywords: Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, Finite element modelling, Lumbar spine, Poroelasticity, Damage model, Subject-specific modelling, Disc cell nutrition

Galbusera, F., Schmidt, H., Noailly, J., Malandrino, A., Lacroix, D., Wilke, H.J, Shirazi-Adl, A., (2011). Comparison of four methods to simulate swelling in poroelastic finite element models of intervertebral discs Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 4, (7), 1234-1241

Osmotic phenomena influence the intervertebral disc biomechanics. Their simulation is challenging and can be undertaken at different levels of complexity. Four distinct approaches to simulate the osmotic behaviour of the intervertebral disc (a fixed boundary pore pressure model, a fixed osmotic pressure gradient model in the whole disc or only in the nucleus pulposus, and a swelling model with strain-dependent osmotic pressure) were analysed. Predictions were compared using a 3D poroelastic finite element model of a L4–L5 spinal unit under three different loading conditions: free swelling for 8 h and two daily loading cycles: (i) 200 N compression for 8 h followed by 500 N compression for 16 h; (ii) 500 N for 8 h followed by 1000 N for 16 h. Overall, all swelling models calculated comparable results, with differences decreasing under greater loads. Results predicted with the fixed boundary pore pressure and the fixed osmotic pressure in the whole disc models were nearly identical. The boundary pore pressure model, however, cannot simulate differential osmotic pressures in disc regions. The swelling model offered the best potential to provide more accurate results, conditional upon availability of reliable values for the required coefficients and material properties. Possible fields of application include mechanobiology investigations and crack opening and propagation. However, the other approaches are a good compromise between the ease of implementation and the reliability of results, especially when considering higher loads or when the focus is on global results such as spinal kinematics.

JTD Keywords: Intervertebral disc, Boundary pore pressure, Osmotic pressure, Swelling, Finite element, Poroelasticity