by Keyword: Scale-up

Cabrera, I., Elizondo, E., Esteban, O., Corchero, J. L., Melgarejo, M., Pulido, D., Córdoba, A., Moreno, E., Unzueta, U., Vazquez, E., Abasolo, I., Schwartz, S., Villaverde, A., Albericio, F., Royo, M., García-Parajo, M. F., Ventosa, N., Veciana, J., (2013). Multifunctional nanovesicle-bioactive conjugates prepared by a one-step scalable method using CO2-expanded solvents Nano Letters 13, (8), 3766-3774

The integration of therapeutic biomolecules, such as proteins and peptides, in nanovesicles is a widely used strategy to improve their stability and efficacy. However, the translation of these promising nanotherapeutics to clinical tests is still challenged by the complexity involved in the preparation of functional nanovesicles and their reproducibility, scalability, and cost production. Here we introduce a simple one-step methodology based on the use of CO2-expanded solvents to prepare multifunctional nanovesicle- bioactive conjugates. We demonstrate high vesicle-to-vesicle homogeneity in terms of size and lamellarity, batch-to-batch consistency, and reproducibility upon scaling-up. Importantly, the procedure is readily amenable to the integration/encapsulation of multiple components into the nanovesicles in a single step and yields sufficient quantities for clinical research. The simplicity, reproducibility, and scalability render this one-step fabrication process ideal for the rapid and low-cost translation of nanomedicine candidates from the bench to the clinic.

JTD Keywords: Bioconjugates, Compressed fluids, Liposomes, Manomedicine, Nanovesicles, Scale-up, Supercritical fluids

Santoro, R., Olivares, A. L., Brans, G., Wirz, D., Longinotti, C., Lacroix, D., Martin, I., Wendt, D., (2010). Bioreactor based engineering of large-scale human cartilage grafts for joint resurfacing Biomaterials 31, (34), 8946-8952

Apart from partial or total joint replacement, no surgical procedure is currently available to treat large and deep cartilage defects associated with advanced diseases such as osteoarthritis. In this work, we developed a perfusion bioreactor system to engineer human cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance for unicompartmental resurfacing of human knee joints (50 mm diameter x 3 mm thick). Computational fluid dynamics models were developed to optimize the flow profile when designing the perfusion chamber. Using the developed system, human chondrocytes could be seeded throughout large 50 mm diameter scaffolds with a uniform distribution. Following two weeks culture, tissues grown in the bioreactor were viable and homogeneously cartilaginous, with biomechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. In contrast, tissues generated by conventional manual production procedures were highly inhomogeneous and contained large necrotic regions. The unprecedented engineering of human cartilage tissues in this large-scale opens the practical perspective of grafting functional biological substitutes for the clinical treatment for extensive cartilage defects, possibly in combination with surgical or pharmacological therapies to support durability of the implant. Ongoing efforts are aimed at integrating the up-scaled bioreactor based processes within a fully automated and closed manufacturing system for safe, standardized, and GMP compliant production of large-scale cartilage grafts.

JTD Keywords: Bioreactor, Cartilage repair, Computational fluid dynamics, Scale-up, Regenerative medicine, Tissue engineering