by Keyword: Sudden cardiac death

Romero, D, Calvo, M, Le Rolle, V, Behar, N, Mabo, P, Hernandez, A, (2022). Multivariate ensemble classification for the prediction of symptoms in patients with Brugada syndrome Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 60, 81-94

Identification of asymptomatic patients at higher risk for suffering cardiac events remains controversial and challenging in Brugada syndrome (BS). In this work, we proposed an ECG-based classifier to predict BS-related symptoms, by merging the most predictive electrophysiological features derived from the ventricular depolarization and repolarization periods, along with autonomic-related markers. The initial feature space included local and dynamic ECG markers, assessed during a physical exercise test performed in 110 BS patients (25 symptomatic). Morphological, temporal and spatial properties quantifying the ECG dynamic response to exercise and recovery were considered. Our model was obtained by proposing a two-stage feature selection process that combined a resampled-based regularization approach with a wrapper model assessment for balancing, simplicity and performance. For the classification step, an ensemble was constructed by several logistic regression base classifiers, whose outputs were fused using a performance-based weighted average. The most relevant predictors corresponded to the repolarization interval, followed by two autonomic markers and two other makers of depolarization dynamics. Our classifier allowed for the identification of novel symptom-related markers from autonomic and dynamic ECG responses during exercise testing, suggesting the need for multifactorial risk stratification approaches in order to predict future cardiac events in asymptomatic BS patients.

JTD Keywords: brugada syndrome, depolarization disorders, ensemble classifier, heart-rate recovery, Acute myocardial-ischemia, Autonomics, Brugada syndrome, Brugadum syndrome, Cardiac death, Depolarization, Depolarization disorder, Depolarization disorders, Dynamic ecg, Electrocardiography, Electrophysiology, Ensemble classifier, Ensemble-classifier, Events, Exercise, Forecasting, Heart, Heart-rate, Heart-rate recovery, Prognosis, Qrs, Quantification, Recovery, Repolarization, Sudden cardiac death

Oliveras, T, Lazaro, I, Rueda, F, Cediel, G, Bhatt, DL, Fito, M, Madrid-Gambin, F, Pozo, OJ, Harris, WS, Garcia-Garcia, C, Sala-Vila, A, Bayes-Genis, A, (2022). Circulating linoleic acid at the time of myocardial infarction and risk of primary ventricular fibrillation Scientific Reports 12, 4377

Primary ventricular fibrillation (PVF) is a major driver of cardiac arrest in the acute phase of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Enrichment of cardiomyocyte plasma membranes with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces vulnerability to PVF experimentally, but clinical data are scarce. PUFA status in serum phospholipids is a valid surrogate biomarker of PUFA status in cardiomyocytes within a wide range of dietary PUFA. In this nested case-control study (n = 58 cases of STEMI-driven PVF, n = 116 control non-PVF STEMI patients matched for age, sex, smoking status, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension) we determined fatty acids in serum phospholipids by gas-chromatography, and assessed differences between cases and controls, applying the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure on nominal P-values to control the false discovery rate (FDR). Significant differences between cases and controls were restricted to linoleic acid (LA), with PVF patients showing a lower level (nominal P = 0.002; FDR-corrected P = 0.027). In a conditional logistic regression model, each one standard deviation increase in the proportion of LA was related to a 42% lower prevalence of PVF (odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37, 0.90; P = 0.02). The association lasted after the inclusion of confounders. Thus, regular consumption of LA-rich foods (nuts, oils from seeds) may protect against ischemia-driven malignant arrhythmias.

JTD Keywords: Arrhythmias, Fish-oil, Omega-3-fatty-acids, Sudden cardiac death

Rodríguez, J., Schulz, S., Giraldo, B. F., Voss, A., (2019). Risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients using cardiovascular coupling analysis Frontiers in Physiology 10, 841

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death; however, the early detection of patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the cardio-vascular couplings based on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) analyses in order to introduce new indices for noninvasive risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients (IDC). High-resolution electrocardiogram (ECG) and continuous noninvasive blood pressure (BP) signals were recorded in 91 IDC patients and 49 healthy subjects (CON). The patients were stratified by their SCD risk as high risk (IDCHR) when after two years the subject either died or suffered life-threatening complications, and as low risk (IDCLR) when the subject remained stable during this period. Values were extracted from ECG and BP signals, the beat-to-beat interval, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and analyzed using the segmented Poincaré plot analysis (SPPA), the high-resolution joint symbolic dynamics (HRJSD) and the normalized short time partial directed coherence methods. Support vector machine (SVM) models were built to classify these patients according to SCD risk. IDCHR patients presented lowered HRV and increased BPV compared to both IDCLR patients and the control subjects, suggesting a decrease in their vagal activity and a compensation of sympathetic activity. Both, the cardio -systolic and -diastolic coupling strength was stronger in high-risk patients when comparing with low-risk patients. The cardio-systolic coupling analysis revealed that the systolic influence on heart rate gets weaker as the risk increases. The SVM IDCLR vs. IDCHR model achieved 98.9% accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96. The IDC and the CON groups obtained 93.6% and 0.94 accuracy and AUC, respectively. To simulate a circumstance in which the original status of the subject is unknown, a cascade model was built fusing the aforementioned models, and achieved 94.4% accuracy. In conclusion, this study introduced a novel method for SCD risk stratification for IDC patients based on new indices from coupling analysis and non-linear HRV and BPV. We have uncovered some of the complex interactions within the autonomic regulation in this type of patient.

JTD Keywords: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Heart rate variability, Blood pressure variability, Coupling analysis, Sudden cardiac death, Risk stratification