by Keyword: Carbon nanotubes

Fontana-Escartín, A, Lanzalaco, S, Zhilev, G, Armelin, E, Bertran, O, Alemán, C, (2024). Oxygen plasma treated thermoplastics as integrated electroresponsive sensors Materials Today Communications 38, 107653

Polypropylene (PP), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) and polylactic acid (PLA) 3D printed specimens, which are intrinsically non-electroresponsive materials, have been converted into electroresponsive electrodes applying a low-pressure oxygen plasma treatment. After complete chemical, morphological and electrochemical characterization, plasma treated samples have been applied as integrated electrochemical sensors for detecting dopamine and serotonin by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Results show differences in the sensing behavior, which have been explained on the basis of the chemical structure of the pristine materials. While plasma treated PLA exhibits the highest performance as electrochemical sensor in terms of sensitivity (lowest limits of detection and quantification) and selectivity (against uric acid and ascorbic acid as interfering substances), plasma treated PP displays the poorest behavior due to its low polarity compared to PLA 3D-printed electrodes. Instead, plasma treated TPU and PETG shows a very good response, much closer to PLA, as sensitive electrodes towards neurotransmitter molecules (dopamine and serotonin). Overall, results open a new door for the fabrication of electrochemical conductive sensors using intrinsically insulating materials, without the need of chemical functionalization processes.

JTD Keywords: 3d printing, Amines, Ascorbic acid, Chemical characterization, Cyclic voltammetry, Dopamine, Electrochemical characterizations, Electrochemical sensor s, Electrochemical sensors, Electrode materials, Electroresponsive materials, Low-pressure oxygen-plasma treatments, Morphological characterization, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mwcn), Neurophysiology, Oxygen, Oxygen plasmas, Plastic bottles, Polyethylene terephthalate glycol, Polyethylene terephthalate glycols, Polyethylene terephthalates, Polylact i c acid, Polylactic acid, Polylactic acid pla, Polyols, Polypropylene, Polypropylene oxides, Polypropylenes, Polyurethanes, Reinforced plastics, Supercapacitors, Thermoplast i c polyurethane, Thermoplastic polyurethane, Thermoplastic polyurethanes

Gholami, S, Rezvani, A, Vatanpour, V, Khoshravesh, SH, Llorens, J, Engel, E, Castano, O, Cortina, JL, (2023). Chlorine resistance property improvement of polyamide reverse osmosis membranes through cross-linking degree increment Science Of The Total Environment 889, 164283

Highly permeable polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are desirable for reducing the energy burden and ensuring future water resources in arid and semiarid regions. One notable drawback of thin film composite (TFC) polyamide RO/NF membranes is the polyamide's sensitivity to degradation by free chlorine, the most used biocide in water purification trains. This investigation demonstrated a significant increase in the crosslinking-degree parameter by the m-phenylenediamine (MPD) chemical structure extending in the thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane without adding extra MPD monomers to enhance the chlorine resistance and performance. Membrane modification was carried out according to monomer ratio changes and Nanoparticle embedding into the PA layer approaches. A new class of TFN-RO membranes incorporating novel aromatic amine functionalized (AAF)-MWCNTs embedded into the polyamide (PA) layer was introduced. A purposeful strategy was carried out to use cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) as an intermediate functional group in the AAF-MWCNTs. Thus, amidic nitrogen, connected to benzene rings and carbonyl groups, assembles a structure similar to the standard PA, consisting of MPD and trimesoyl chloride. The resulting AAF-MWCNTs were mixed in the aqueous phase during the interfacial polymerization to increase the susceptible positions to chlorine attack and improve the crosslinking degree in the PA network. The characterization and performance results of the membrane demonstrated an increase in ion selectivity and water flux, impressive stability of salt rejection after chlorine exposure, and improved antifouling performance. This purposeful modification resulted in overthrowing two tradeoffs; i) high crosslink density-water flux and ii) salt rejection-permeability. The modified membrane demonstrated ameliorative chlorine resistance relative to the pristine one, with twice the increase in crosslinking degree, more than four times the enhancement of the oxidation resistance, negligible reduction in the salt rejection (0.83 %), and only 5 L/m2.h flux loss following a rigorous static chlorine exposure of 500 ppm.h under acidic conditions. The excellent performance of new chlorine resistant TNF RO membranes fabricated via AAF-MWCNTs together with the facile membrane manufacturing process offered the possibility of postulating them in the desalination field, which could eventually help the current freshwater supply challenge.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: behavior, carbon nanotubes, desalination, interfacial polymerization, naclo resistance, nanocomposite, nanofiltration membrane, performance, polymerization, ro membranemodification, substrate, water, Antifouling, Desalination, Interfacial polymerization, Naclo resistance, Ro membrane modification, Thin-film composite

Garcia-Torres, J, Colombi, S, Mahamed, I, Sylla, D, Arnau, M, Sans, J, Ginebra, MP, Aleman, C, (2023). Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Temperature Response for Capacitive Energy Storage Acs Applied Energy Materials 6, 4487-4495

Lanzalaco, S, Mingot, J, Torras, J, Alemán, C, Armelin, E, (2023). Recent Advances in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels and Derivatives as Promising Materials for Biomedical and Engineering Emerging Applications Advanced Engineering Materials 25,

Ramos, E., Pardo, W. A., Mir, M., Samitier, J., (2017). Dependence of carbon nanotubes dispersion kinetics on surfactants Nanotechnology 28, (13), 135702

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the subject of many studies due to their unique structure and desirable properties. However, the ability to solubilize and separate single CNTs from the bundles they form is still a challenge that needs to be overcome in order to extend their applications in the field of Nanotechnology. Covalent interactions are designed to modify CNTs surface and so prevent agglomeration. Though, this method alters the structures and intrinsic properties of CNTs. In the present work, noncovalent approaches to functionalize and solubilize CNTs are studied in detail. A dispersion kinetic study was performed to characterize the ability of different type of surfactants (non-ionic, anionic, cationic and biopolymer) to unzip CNT bundles. The dispersion kinetic study performed depicts the distinct CNTs bundles unzipping behavior of the different type of surfactants and the results elucidate specific wavelengths in relation with the degree of CNT clustering, which provides new tools for a deeper understanding and characterization of CNTs. Small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy results are in agreement with UV-vis-NIR observations, revealing perfectly monodispersed CNTs for the biopolymer and cationic surfactant.

JTD Keywords: Dispersion, DNA, Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Surfactant, Triton X-100

Mir, M., Homs, A., Samitier, J., (2009). Integrated electrochemical DNA biosensors for lab-on-a-chip devices Electrophoresis , 30, (19), 3386-3397

Analytical devices able to perform accurate and fast automatic DNA detection or sequencing procedures have many potential benefits in the biomedical and environmental fields. The conversion of biological or biochemical responses into quantifiable optical, mechanical or electronic signals is achieved by means of biosensors. Most of these transducing elements can be miniaturized and incorporated into lab-on-a-chip devices, also known as Micro Total Analysis Systems. The use of multiple DNA biosensors integrated in these miniaturized laboratories, which perform several analytical operations at the microscale, has many cost and efficiency advantages. Tiny amounts of reagents and samples are needed and highly sensitive, fast and parallel assays can be done at low cost. A particular type of DNA biosensors are the ones used based on electrochemical principles. These sensors offer several advantages over the popular fluorescence-based detection schemes. The resulting signal is electrical and can be processed by conventional electronics in a very cheap and fast manner. Furthermore, the integration and miniaturization of electrochemical transducers in a microsystem makes easier its fabrication in front of the most common currently used detection method. In this review, different electrochemical DNA biosensors integrated in analytical microfluidic devices are discussed and some early stage commercial products based on this strategy are presented.

JTD Keywords: DNA, Electrochemical DNA biosensors, Electrochemistry, Lab-on-a-chip, Micro Total Analysis systems, Field-effect transistors, Sequence-specific detection, Chemical-analysis systems, Solid-state nanopores, Carbon nanotubes, Microfluidic device, Electrical detection, Hybridization, Molecules, Sensor