by Keyword: Catalase

Arque, X, Patino, T, Sanchez, S, (2022). Enzyme-powered micro- and nano-motors: key parameters for an application-oriented design Chemical Science 13, 9128-9146

Nature has inspired the creation of artificial micro- and nanomotors that self-propel converting chemical energy into mechanical action. These tiny machines have appeared as promising biomedical tools for treatment and diagnosis and have also been used for environmental, antimicrobial or sensing applications. Among the possible catalytic engines, enzymes have emerged as an alternative to inorganic catalysts due to their biocompatibility and the variety and bioavailability of fuels. Although the field of enzyme-powered micro- and nano-motors has a trajectory of more than a decade, a comprehensive framework on how to rationally design, control and optimize their motion is still missing. With this purpose, herein we performed a thorough bibliographic study on the key parameters governing the propulsion of these enzyme-powered devices, namely the chassis shape, the material composition, the motor size, the enzyme type, the method used to incorporate enzymes, the distribution of the product released, the motion mechanism, the motion media and the technique used for motion detection. In conclusion, from the library of options that each parameter offers there needs to be a rational selection and intelligent design of enzymatic motors based on the specific application envisioned.

JTD Keywords: Catalase, Hydrogen-peroxide, Micro/nanomotors, Micromotors, Movement, Nanomotors, Propulsion, Surfactants, Therapy, Tumor microenvironment

Guallar-Garrido, Sandra, Almiñana-Rapún, Farners, Campo-Pérez, Víctor, Torrents, Eduard, Luquin, Marina, Julián, Esther, (2022). BCG Substrains Change Their Outermost Surface as a Function of Growth Media Vaccines 10, 40

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) efficacy as an immunotherapy tool can be influenced by the genetic background or immune status of the treated population and by the BCG substrain used. BCG comprises several substrains with genetic differences that elicit diverse phenotypic characteristics. Moreover, modifications of phenotypic characteristics can be influenced by culture conditions. However, several culture media formulations are used worldwide to produce BCG. To elucidate the influence of growth conditions on BCG characteristics, five different substrains were grown on two culture media, and the lipidic profile and physico-chemical properties were evaluated. Our results show that each BCG substrain displays a variety of lipidic profiles on the outermost surface depending on the growth conditions. These modifications lead to a breadth of hydrophobicity patterns and a different ability to reduce neutral red dye within the same BCG substrain, suggesting the influence of BCG growth conditions on the interaction between BCG cells and host cells.

JTD Keywords: cell wall, efficacy, glycerol, hydrophobicity, lipid, neutral red, pdim, pgl, protein, strains, viability, virulence, Acylglycerol, Albumin, Article, Asparagine, Bacterial cell wall, Bacterial gene, Bacterium culture, Bcg vaccine, Catalase, Cell wall, Chloroform, Controlled study, Escherichia coli, Gene expression, Genomic dna, Glycerol, Glycerol monomycolate, Hexadecane, Housekeeping gene, Hydrophobicity, Immune response, Immunogenicity, Immunotherapy, Lipid, Lipid fingerprinting, Magnesium sulfate, Mercaptoethanol, Methanol, Methylglyoxal, Molybdatophosphoric acid, Mycobacterium bovis bcg, Neutral red, Nonhuman, Pdim, Petroleum ether, Pgl, Phenotype, Physical chemistry, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Rna 16s, Rna extraction, Rv0577, Staining, Thin layer chromatography, Unclassified drug