by Keyword: Cell carcinoma,breast-cancer,expression,progression,inhibitor,blockade,efficac

Duch, P, Díaz-Valdivia, N, Gabasa, M, Ikemori, R, Arshakyan, M, Fernández-Nogueira, P, Llorente, A, Teixido, C, Ramírez, J, Pereda, J, Chuliá-Peris, L, Galbis, JM, Hilberg, F, Reguart, N, Radisky, DC, Alcaraz, J, (2024). Aberrant TIMP-1 production in tumor-associated fibroblasts drives the selective benefits of nintedanib in lung adenocarcinoma Cancer Science 115, 1505-1519

The fibrotic tumor microenvironment is a pivotal therapeutic target. Nintedanib, a clinically approved multikinase antifibrotic inhibitor, is effective against lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) but not squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Previous studies have implicated the secretome of tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in the selective effects of nintedanib in ADC, but the driving factor(s) remained unidentified. Here we examined the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), a tumor-promoting cytokine overproduced in ADC-TAFs. To this aim, we combined genetic approaches with in vitro and in vivo preclinical models based on patient-derived TAFs. Nintedanib reduced TIMP-1 production more efficiently in ADC-TAFs than SCC-TAFs through a SMAD3-dependent mechanism. Cell culture experiments indicated that silencing TIMP1 in ADC-TAFs abolished the therapeutic effects of nintedanib on cancer cell growth and invasion, which were otherwise enhanced by the TAF secretome. Consistently, co-injecting ADC cells with TIMP1-knockdown ADC-TAFs into immunocompromised mice elicited a less effective reduction of tumor growth and invasion under nintedanib treatment compared to tumors bearing unmodified fibroblasts. Our results unveil a key mechanism underlying the selective mode of action of nintedanib in ADC based on the excessive production of TIMP-1 in ADC-TAFs. We further pinpoint reduced SMAD3 expression and consequent limited TIMP-1 production in SCC-TAFs as key for the resistance of SCC to nintedanib. These observations strongly support the emerging role of TIMP-1 as a critical regulator of therapy response in solid tumors.

JTD Keywords: Cancer-associated fibroblast,fibrosis,nintedanib,non-small-cell lung cancer,smad3,therapy resistance,timp-, Cell carcinoma,breast-cancer,expression,progression,inhibitor,blockade,efficac