by Keyword: Determinants

Hernández F, Ferrer I, Pérez M, Zabala JC, Del Rio JA, Avila J, (2023). Tau Aggregation Neuroscience 518, 64-69

Here we revisit tau protein aggregation at primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. In addition, the presence of non-aggregated tau protein, which has been recently discovered, is also commented on.Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: alpha-helix, alzheimer-disease, antigenic determinants, binding, isomerase pin1, microtubule-binding repeats, neurofibrillary tangles, paired helical filaments, repeat domain, structural-characterization, tau conformations, w-tau isoform, Microtubule-associated protein, Microtubule-binding repeats, Tau, Tau conformations, W-tau isoform

Seuma M, Lehner B, Bolognesi B, (2022). An atlas of amyloid aggregation: the impact of substitutions, insertions, deletions and truncations on amyloid beta fibril nucleation Nature Communications 13, 7084

Multiplexed assays of variant effects (MAVEs) guide clinical variant interpretation and reveal disease mechanisms. To date, MAVEs have focussed on a single mutation type-amino acid (AA) substitutions-despite the diversity of coding variants that cause disease. Here we use Deep Indel Mutagenesis (DIM) to generate a comprehensive atlas of diverse variant effects for a disease protein, the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide that aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is mutated in familial AD (fAD). The atlas identifies known fAD mutations and reveals that many variants beyond substitutions accelerate Aβ aggregation and are likely to be pathogenic. Truncations, substitutions, insertions, single- and internal multi-AA deletions differ in their propensity to enhance or impair aggregation, but likely pathogenic variants from all classes are highly enriched in the polar N-terminal region of Aβ. This comparative atlas highlights the importance of including diverse mutation types in MAVEs and provides important mechanistic insights into amyloid nucleation.© 2022. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: amyloid-beta(1-42), determinants, disease, mutants, protein, secondary nucleation, Atomic-resolution structure

Fernandez-Vazquez, J, Cabrer-Panes, JD, Aberg, A, Juarez, A, Madrid, C, Gaviria-Cantin, T, Fernandez-Coll, L, Vargas-Sinisterra, AF, Jimenez, CJ, Balsalobre, C, (2022). ppGpp, the General Stress Response Alarmone, Is Required for the Expression of the alpha-Hemolysin Toxin in the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate, J96 International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23,

ppGpp is an intracellular sensor that, in response to different types of stress, coordinates the rearrangement of the gene expression pattern of bacteria to promote adaptation and survival to new environmental conditions. First described to modulate metabolic adaptive responses, ppGpp modulates the expression of genes belonging to very diverse functional categories. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp regulates the expression of cellular factors that are important during urinary tract infections. Here, we characterize the role of this alarmone in the regulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon of the UPEC isolate J96, encoding the toxin alpha-hemolysin that induces cytotoxicity during infection of bladder epithelial cells. ppGpp is required for the expression of the alpha-hemolysin encoded in hlyCABD(II) by stimulating its transcriptional expression. Prototrophy suppressor mutations in a ppGpp-deficient strain restore the alpha-hemolysin expression from this operon to wild-type levels, confirming the requirement of ppGpp for its expression. ppGpp stimulates hlyCABD(II) expression independently of RpoS, RfaH, Zur, and H-NS. The expression of hlyCABD(II) is promoted at 37 degrees C and at low osmolarity. ppGpp is required for the thermoregulation but not for the osmoregulation of the hlyCABD(II) operon. Studies in both commensal and UPEC isolates demonstrate that no UPEC specific factor is strictly required for the ppGpp-mediated regulation described. Our data further support the role of ppGpp participating in the coordinated regulation of the expression of bacterial factors required during infection.

JTD Keywords: gene regulation, ppgpp, upec, Alpha-hemolysin, Bacterial signal molecule, Determinants, Environmental-regulation, Gene regulation, H-ns, Ppgpp, Protein, Regulator, Rfah, Secretion, Transcription, Upec, Virulence, Α-hemolysin