by Keyword: Ionic exchange

Konka, J, Espanol, M, Bosch, BM, de Oliveira, E, Ginebra, MP, (2021). Maturation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in physiological fluids: a physicochemical and proteomic study Materials Today Bio 12,

Biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) as a bioactive material exhibits exceptional intrinsic osteoinductive and osteogenic properties because of its nanostructure and composition, which promote a favorable microenvironment. Its high reactivity has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in the in vivo performance, mediated by the interaction with the biological fluids, which is amplified by its high specific surface area. Paradoxically, this high reactivity is also behind the in vitro cytotoxicity of this material, especially pro-nounced in static conditions. The present work explores the structural and physicochemical changes that CDHA undergoes in contact with physiological fluids and to investigate its interaction with proteins. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite discs with different micro/nanostructures, coarse (C) and fine (F), were exposed to cell-free complete culture medium over extended periods of time: 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 50 days. Precipitate formation was not observed in any of the materials in contact with the physiological fluid, which would indicate that the ionic exchanges were linked to incorporation into the crystal structure of CDHA or in the hydrated layer. In fact, CDHA experienced a maturation process, with a progressive increase in crystallinity and the Ca/P ratio, accompanied by an uptake of Mg and a B-type carbonation process, with a gradual propagation into the core of the samples. However, the reactivity of biomimetic hydroxyapatite was highly dependent on the specific surface area and was amplified in nanosized needle-like crystal structures (F), whereas in coarse specimens the ionic exchanges were restricted to the surface, with low penetration in the material bulk. In addition to showing a higher protein adsorption on F substrates, the proteomics study revealed the existence of protein selectivity to-ward F or C microstructures, as well as the capability of CDHA, and more remarkably of F-CDHA, to concentrate specific proteins from the culture medium. Finally, a substantial improvement in the material's ability to support cell proliferation was observed after the CDHA maturation process.

JTD Keywords: calcium phosphates, ion exchange, nanostructure, protein adsorption, Biological-systems, Biomaterials, Biomimetic hydroxyapatites, Biomimetics, Bone-formation, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphates, Cell proliferation, Crystal structure, Crystallinity, Crystals structures, Culture medium, Growth, High reactivity, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Ion exchange, Ionic exchange, Molecular biology, Nanocrystalline apatites, Nanostructure, Nanostructures, Octacalcium phosphate, Physicochemical studies, Physiological fluids, Physiology, Protein adsorption, Proteins, Proteomic studies, Raman spectroscopy, Serum-albumin, Specific surface area

Ciapetti, G., Di Pompo, G., Avnet, S., Martini, D., Diez-Escudero, A., Montufar, E. B., Ginebra, M. P., Baldini, N., (2017). Osteoclast differentiation from human blood precursors on biomimetic calcium-phosphate substrates Acta Biomaterialia 50, 102-113

The design of synthetic bone grafts to foster bone formation is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Understanding the interaction of bone substitutes with osteoclasts is essential, since osteoclasts not only drive a timely resorption of the biomaterial, but also trigger osteoblast activity. In this study, the adhesion and differentiation of human blood-derived osteoclast precursors (OCP) on two different micro-nanostructured biomimetic hydroxyapatite materials consisting in coarse (HA-C) and fine HA (HA-F) crystals, in comparison with sintered stoichiometric HA (sin-HA, reference material), were investigated. Osteoclasts were induced to differentiate by RANKL-containing supernatant using cell/substrate direct and indirect contact systems, and calcium (Ca++) and phosphorus (P5+) in culture medium were measured. We observed that OCP adhered to the experimental surfaces, and that osteoclast-like cells formed at a rate influenced by the micro- and nano-structure of HA, which also modulate extracellular Ca++. Qualitative differences were found between OCP on biomimetic HA-C and HA-F and their counterparts on plastic and sin-HA. On HA-C and HA-F cells shared typical features of mature osteoclasts, i.e. podosomes, multinuclearity, tartrate acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive staining, and TRAP5b-enzyme release. However, cells were less in number compared to those on plastic or on sin-HA, and they did not express some specific osteoclast markers. In conclusion, blood-derived OCP are able to attach to biomimetic and sintered HA substrates, but their subsequent fusion and resorptive activity are hampered by surface micro-nano-structure. Indirect cultures suggest that fusion of OCP is sensitive to topography and to extracellular calcium. Statement of Significance: The novelty of the paper is the differentiation of human blood-derived osteoclast precursors, instead of mouse-derived macrophages as used in most studies, directly on biomimetic micro-nano structured HA-based surfaces, as triggered by osteoblast-produced factors (RANKL/OPG), and influenced by chemistry and topography of the substrate(s). Biomimetic HA-surfaces, like those obtained in calcium phosphate cements, are very different from the conventional calcium phosphate ceramics, both in terms of topography and ion exchange. The role of these factors in modulating precursors’ differentiation and activity is analysed. The system is closely reproducing the physiological process of attachment of host cells and further maturation to osteoclasts toward resorption of the substrate, which occurs in vivo after filling bone defects with the calcium phosphate grafts.

JTD Keywords: Bone resorption, Differentiation, Hydroxyapatite, Ionic exchange, Osteoclasts, Topography