by Keyword: Point-of-care

Ugarte-Orozco, MJ, Lopez-Munoz, GA, Antonio-Perez, A, Esquivel-Ortiz, KM, Ramon-Azcon, J, (2023). High-throughput biointerfaces for direct, label-free, and multiplexed metaplasmonic biosensing Current Research In Biotechnology 5, 100119

In recent years, metaplasmonic biosensors have emerged as a novel counterpart of well-established plasmonic biosensors based on thin metallic layers. Metaplasmonic biosensors offer high potential for sensor miniaturiza-tion, extreme sensitivity biosensing, and high multiplexing capabilities with detection methods free of coupling optical elements. These capabilities make metaplasmonic biosensors highly attractive for Point-of-Care and handled/portable devices or novel On-Chip devices; as a result, it has increased the number of prototypes and potential applications that emerged during the last years. One of the main challenges to achieving fully operative devices is the achievement of high-throughput biointerfaces for sensitive and selective biodetection in complex media. Despite the superior surface sensitivity achieved by metaplasmonic sensors compared to conventional plasmonic sensors based on metallic thin films, the main limitations to achieving high-throughput and multiplexed biosensing usually are associated with the sensitivity and selectivity of the bioin-terface and, as a consequence, their application to the direct analysis of real complex samples. This graphical review discusses the potential challenges and capabilities of different biofunctionalization strategies, biorecog-nition elements, and antifouling strategies to achieve scalable and high-throughput metaplasmonic biosensing for Point-of-Care devices and bioengineering applications like Organs-On-Chip.

JTD Keywords: Biointerfaces, Biosensing, Biosensors, Cell culture monitoring, Metaplasmonic, Nanoplasmonic, Organ-on-chip, Point-of-care

Ruiz-Vega, G., Arias-Alpízar, K., de la Serna, E., Borgheti-Cardoso, L. N., Sulleiro, E., Molina, I., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., Sánchez-Montalvá, A., del Campo, F. J., Baldrich, E., (2020). Electrochemical POC device for fast malaria quantitative diagnosis in whole blood by using magnetic beads, Poly-HRP and microfluidic paper electrodes Biosensors and Bioelectronics 150, 111925

Malaria, a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitos, is one of the main causes of mortality in many developing countries. Over 200 million new infections and nearly half a million deaths are reported each year, and more than three billion people are at risk of acquiring malaria worldwide. Nevertheless, most malaria cases could be cured if detected early. Malaria eradication is a top priority of the World Health Organisation. However, achieving this goal will require mass population screening and treatment, which will be hard to accomplish with current diagnostic tools. We report an electrochemical point-of-care device for the fast, simple and quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in whole blood samples. Sample analysis includes 5-min lysis to release intracellular parasites, and stirring for 5 more min with immuno-modified magnetic beads (MB) along with an immuno-modified signal amplifier. The rest of the magneto-immunoassay, including sample filtration, MB washing and electrochemical detection, is performed at a disposable paper electrode microfluidic device. The sensor provides PfLDH quantitation down to 2.47 ng mL−1 in spiked samples and for 0.006–1.5% parasitemias in Plasmodium-infected cultured red blood cells, and discrimination between healthy individuals and malaria patients presenting parasitemias >0.3%. Quantitative malaria diagnosis is attained with little user intervention, which is not achieved by other diagnostic methods.

JTD Keywords: Electrochemical magneto-immunosensor, Malaria quantitative diagnosis, Paper microfluidic electrode, Plasmodium LDH, Point-of-care (POC) testing

Lakey, A., Ali, Z., Scott, S. M., Chebil, S., Korri-Youssoufi, H., Hunor, S., Ohlander, A., Kuphal, M., Samitier, J., (2019). Impedimetric array in polymer microfluidic cartridge for low cost point-of-care diagnostics Biosensors and Bioelectronics 129, 147-154

Deep Vein Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) is one of the most common causes of unexpected death for hospital in-patients. D-dimer is used as a biomarker within blood for the diagnosis of DVT/PE. We report a low-cost microfluidic device with a conveniently biofunctionalised interdigitated electrode (IDE) array and a portable impedimetric reader as a point-of-care (POC) device for the detection of D-dimer to aid diagnosis of DVT/PE. The IDE array elements, fabricated on a polyethylenenaphtalate (PEN) substrate, are biofunctionalised in situ after assembly of the microfluidic device by electropolymerisation of a copolymer of polypyrrole to which is immobilised a histidine tag anti-D-Dimer antibody. The most consistent copolymer films were produced using chronopotentiometry with an applied current of 5μA for a period of 50 s using a two-electrode system. The quality of the biofunctionalisation was monitored using optical microscopy, chronopotentiometry curves and impedimetric analysis. Measurement of clinical plasma sample with a D-dimer at concentration of 437 ng/mL with 15 biofunctionalised IDE array electrodes gave a ratiometric percentage of sample reading against the blank with an average value of 124 ± 15 at 95% confidence. We have demonstrated the concept of a low cost disposable microfluidic device with a receptor functionalised on the IDE array for impedimetric detection towards POC diagnostics. Changing the receptor on the IDE array would allow this approach to be used for the direct detection of a wide range of analytes in a low cost manner.

JTD Keywords: Electropolymerisation, Impedimetric sensing, Interdigitated electrodes, Microfluidics, Point-of-care diagnostics