by Keyword: Pulse electrodeposition

Vidal, E, Guillem-Marti, J, Ginebra, MP, Combes, C, Ruperez, E, Rodriguez, D, (2021). Multifunctional homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings: Toward antibacterial and cell adhesive titanium scaffolds Surface & Coatings Technology 405, 126557

Implants for orthopedic applications need to be biocompatible and bioactive, with mechanical properties similar to those of surrounding natural bone. Given this scenario titanium (Ti) scaffolds obtained by Direct Ink Writing technique offer the opportunity to manufacture customized structures with controlled porosity and mechanical properties. Considering that 3D Ti scaffolds have a significant surface area, it is necessary to develop strategies against the initial bacterial adhesion in order to prevent infection in the early stages of the implantation, while promoting cell adhesion to the scaffold. The challenge is not only achieving a balance between antibacterial activity and osseointegration, it is also to develop a homogeneous coating on the inner and outer surface of the scaffold. The purpose of this work was the development of a single-step electrodeposition process in order to uniformly cover Ti scaffolds with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP) loaded with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX). Scaffold characterization was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman microscopy and compressive strength tests. Results determined that the surface of scaffolds was covered by plate-like and whisker-like calcium phosphate crystals, which main phases were octacalcium phosphate and brushite. Biological tests showed that the as-coated scaffolds reduced bacteria adhesion (73 +/- 3% for Staphylococcus aureus and 70 +/- 2% for Escherichia coli). In vitro cell studies and confocal analysis revealed the adhesion and spreading of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 on coated surfaces. Therefore, the proposed strategy can be a potential candidate in bone replacing surgeries.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial, Bacterial, Behavior, Biocompatibility, Calcium phosphate coating, Chlorhexidine, Chlorhexidine digluconate, Deposition, Electrodeposition, Hydroxyapatite coatings, Implants, One-step pulse electrodeposition, Plasma-spray, Release, Surface, Titanium scaffolds

Vidal, E., Buxadera-Palomero, J., Pierre, C., Manero, J. M., Ginebra, M. P., Cazalbou, S., Combes, C., Rupérez, E., Rodríguez, D., (2019). Single-step pulsed electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coatings on titanium for drug delivery Surface and Coatings Technology 358, 266-275

Metallic implants have some limitations related to bioactivity and bacteria colonization leading to infections. In this regard, calcium phosphate coatings can be used as carrier for drug delivery in order to improve the mentioned drawbacks. The present work proposes the introduction of an antibacterial agent in the course of a pulsed and reverse pulsed electrodeposition. Calcium phosphate coatings were prepared in 30 min using different pulse waveforms (unipolar-bipolar), current densities (2–5 mA/cm2) and temperatures (40–60 °C). Mechanical stability of the as-coated surfaces was studied in order to select the optimal electrodeposition conditions. Subsequently, selected coatings were loaded with an antiseptic agent, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), via a single-step co-deposition procedure. CHX concentration added to the electrolyte was adjusted to 3 mM based on the antibacterial efficacy of the loaded coatings evaluated in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria strains. Whereas the same chlorhexidine concentration was added to the electrolyte, results showed that the amount of CHX loaded was different for each condition while release kinetics was maintained. The results of this work demonstrate that a pulsed co-deposition strategy has great potential to modulate local delivery of antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine digluconate, which may prevent early phase infections of metallic implants after insertion.

JTD Keywords: Antibacterial agent, Calcium phosphate, Characterization, Coating, Pulse electrodeposition, Titanium