by Keyword: Respiratory Mechanics

Lozano-Garcia M, Estrada-Petrocelli L, Blanco-Almazan D, Tas B, Cho PS, Moxham J, Rafferty GF, Torres A, Jane R, Jolley CJ, (2022). Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromechanical and Neuroventilatory Coupling in COPD Ieee Journal Of Biomedical And Health Informatics 26, 3385-3396

This study explored the use of parasternal second intercostal space and lower intercostal space surface electromyogram (sEMG) and surface mechanomyogram (sMMG) recordings (sEMGpara and sMMGpara, and sEMGlic and sMMGlic, respectively) to assess neural respiratory drive (NRD), neuromechanical (NMC) and neuroventilatory (NVC) coupling, and mechanical efficiency (MEff) noninvasively in healthy subjects and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. sEMGpara, sMMGpara, sEMGlic, sMMGlic, mouth pressure (Pmo), and volume (Vi) were measured at rest, and during an inspiratory loading protocol, in 16 COPD patients (8 moderate and 8 severe) and 9 healthy subjects. Myographic signals were analyzed using fixed sample entropy and normalized to their largest values (fSEsEMGpara%max, fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGlic%max, and fSEsMMGlic%max). fSEsMMGpara%max, fSEsEMGpara%max, and fSEsEMGlic%max were significantly higher in COPD than in healthy participants at rest. Parasternal intercostal muscle NMC was significantly higher in healthy than in COPD participants at rest, but not during threshold loading. Pmo-derived NMC and MEff ratios were lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects during threshold loading, but differences were not consistently significant. During resting breathing and threshold loading, Vi-derived NVC and MEff ratios were significantly lower in severe patients than in mild patients or healthy subjects. sMMG is a potential noninvasive alternative to sEMG for assessing NRD in COPD. The ratios of Pmo and Vi to sMMG and sEMG measurements provide wholly noninvasive NMC, NVC, and MEff indices that are sensitive to impaired respiratory mechanics in COPD and are therefore of potential value to assess disease severity in clinical practice. Author

JTD Keywords: biomedical measurement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, couplings, diaphragm, disease severity, efficiency, electromyography, exacerbations, healthy volunteers, inspiratory muscles, loading, mechanomyography, obstructive pulmonary-disease, pressure measurement, protocols, respiratory mechanics, respiratory muscles, responsiveness, spirometry, stimulation, volume measurement, At rests, Biomedical measurement, Biomedical measurements, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Couplings, Disease severity, Efficiency ratio, Electromyography, Healthy subjects, Healthy volunteers, Loading, Mechanical efficiency, Mechanomyogram, Muscle, Muscles, Neural respiratory drive, Noninvasive medical procedures, Pressure measurement, Protocols, Pulmonary diseases, Surface electromyogram, Volume measurement

Lozano-García, M., Estrada-Petrocelli, L., Moxham, J., Rafferty, G. F., Torres, A., Jolley, C. J., Jané, R. , (2019). Noninvasive assessment of inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling during inspiratory threshold loading IEEE Access 7, 183634-183646

Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling (NMC), which reflects the efficiency of conversion of neural activation to transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), is increasingly recognized to be a useful clinical index of diaphragm function and respiratory mechanics in neuromuscular weakness and cardiorespiratory disease. However, the current gold standard assessment of diaphragm NMC requires invasive measurements of Pdi and crural diaphragm electromyography (oesEMGdi), which complicates the measurement of diaphragm NMC in clinical practice. This is the first study to compare invasive measurements of diaphragm NMC (iNMC) using the relationship between Pdi and oesEMGdi, with noninvasive assessment of NMC (nNMC) using surface mechanomyography (sMMGlic) and electromyography (sEMGlic) of lower chest wall inspiratory muscles. Both invasive and noninvasive measurements were recorded in twelve healthy adult subjects during an inspiratory threshold loading protocol. A linear relationship between noninvasive sMMGlic and sEMGlic measurements was found, resulting in little change in nNMC with increasing inspiratory load. By contrast, a curvilinear relationship between invasive Pdi and oesEMGdi measurements was observed, such that there was a progressive increase in iNMC with increasing inspiratory threshold load. Progressive recruitment of lower ribcage muscles, serving to enhance the mechanical advantage of the diaphragm, may explain the more linear relationship between sMMGlic and sEMGlic (both representing lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity) than between Pdi and crural oesEMGdi. Noninvasive indices of NMC derived from sEMGlic and sMMGlic may prove to be useful indices of lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, particularly in settings that do not have access to invasive measures of diaphragm function.

JTD Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Diaphragms, Diseases, Electromyography, Medical signal processing, Neurophysiology, Patient monitoring, Pneumodynamics, Inspiratory muscle neuromechanical coupling, Diaphragm neuromechanical coupling, Neural activation, Transdiaphragmatic pressure, Diaphragm function, Respiratory mechanics, Diaphragm NMC, Invasive measurements, Crural diaphragm electromyography, iNMC, Noninvasive assessment, nNMC, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscles, Inspiratory threshold loading protocol, Noninvasive sMMGlic measurements, sEMGlic measurements, oesEMGdi measurements, Inspiratory threshold load, Lower ribcage muscles, Lower intercostal plus costal diaphragm activity, Crural oesEMGdi, Noninvasive indices, sEMGlic sMMGlic, Lower chest wall inspiratory muscle NMC, Surface mechanomyography, Electromyography, Inspiratory threshold loading, Mechanomyography, Neuromechanical coupling, Respiratory muscles

Cagido, Viviane Ramos, Zin, Walter Araujo, Ramirez, Jose, Navajas, Daniel, Farre, Ramon, (2011). Alternating ventilation in a rat model of increased abdominal pressure Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology , 175, (3), 310-315

During alternating ventilation (AV) one lung is inflating while the other is deflating. Considering the possible respiratory and hemodynamic advantages of AV, we investigated its effects during increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP = 10 mmHg). In Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6, 270–375 g) the main bronchi were independently cannulated, and respiratory mechanics determined while animals underwent different ventilatory patterns: synchronic ventilation without increased IAP (SV-0), elevated IAP during SV (SV-10), and AV with elevated IAP (AV-10). Thirty-three other animals (SV-0, n = 10; SV-10, n = 11 and AV-10, n = 12) were ventilated during 3 h. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and lung histology were assessed. Increased IAP resulted in significantly higher elastances (p < 0.001), being AV-10 lower than SV-10 (p < 0.020). SV-10 showed higher central venous pressure (p < 0.003) than S-0; no change was observed in AV-10. Wet/dry lung weight ratio was lower in AV-10 than SV-10 (p = 0.009). Application of AV reduced hemodynamic and lung impairments induced by increased IAP during SV.

JTD Keywords: Alternating ventilation, Respiratory mechanics, Intra-abdominal pressure, Hemodynamic, Mechanical ventilation, Animal model

Orini, Michele, Giraldo, Beatriz F., Bailon, Raquel, Vallverdu, Montserrat, Mainardi, Luca, Benito, Salvador, Diaz, Ivan, Caminal, Pere, (2008). Time-frequency analysis of cardiac and respiratory parameters for the prediction of ventilator weaning IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (ed. IEEE), IEEE (Vancouver, Canada) 1-8, 2793-2796

Mechanical ventilators are used to provide life support in patients with respiratory failure. Assessing autonomic control during the ventilator weaning provides information about physiopathological imbalances. Autonomic parameters can be derived and used to predict success in discontinuing from the mechanical support. Time-frequency analysis is used to derive cardiac and respiratory parameters, as well as their evolution in time, during ventilator weaning in 130 patients. Statistically significant differences have been observed in autonomic parameters between patients who are considered ready for spontaneous breathing and patients who are not. A classification based on respiratory frequency, heart rate and heart rate variability spectral components has been proposed and has been able to correctly classify more than 80% of the cases.

JTD Keywords: Automatic Data Processing, Databases, Factual, Electrocardiography, Humans, Models, Statistical, Respiration, Respiration, Artificial, Respiratory Insufficiency, Respiratory Mechanics, Respiratory Muscles, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Time Factors, Ventilator Weaning, Ventilators, Mechanical, Work of Breathing