by Keyword: Robocasting

del-Mazo-Barbara L, Ginebra MP, (2021). Rheological characterisation of ceramic inks for 3D direct ink writing: A review Journal Of The European Ceramic Society 41, 18-33

3D printing is a competitive manufacturing technology, which has opened up new possibilities for the fabrication of complex ceramic structures and customised parts. Extrusion-based technologies, also known as direct ink writing (DIW) or robocasting, are amongst the most used for ceramic materials. In them, the rheological properties of the ink play a crucial role, determining both the extrudability of the paste and the shape fidelity of the printed parts. However, comprehensive rheological studies of printable ceramic inks are scarce and may be difficult to understand for non-specialists. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of ceramic ink formulations developed for DIW and a detailed description of the more relevant rheological tests for assessing the printability of ceramic pastes. Moreover, the key rheological parameters are identified and linked to printability aspects, including the values reported in the literature for different ink compositions.

JTD Keywords: 3-dimensional structures, behavior, deposition, direct ink writing, freeform fabrication, gelation, glass scaffolds, mechanical-properties, printability, rheology, robocasting, suspensions, 3d printing, Direct ink writing, Phosphate scaffolds, Printability, Rheology, Robocasting

Raymond Y, Thorel E, Liversain M, Riveiro A, Pou J, Ginebra MP, (2021). 3D printing non-cylindrical strands: Morphological and structural implications Additive Manufacturing 46,

Conventional direct ink writing uses circular nozzles and, therefore, results in cylindrical strands. 3D printing with non-circular nozzles adds new degrees of freedom to this versatile technology, and allows obtaining structures with higher specific surface area or even introducing concave surfaces in the printed architecture. This is an enticing prospect for countless applications, including tissue engineering, chemical reaction catalysts, water evaporators and electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite this, it has been hardly explored by the 3D-printing community. Herein, we develop for the first time 3D printed structures with complex filament section morphologies using a custom-made modular nozzle and a self-setting ceramic ink. The fast elastic recovery of the ink allows obtaining good shape fidelity in the printed filaments, permitting the creation of intricate surfaces with up to 30% concavity and increasing up to 2.5 times the specific surface area compared to cylindrical strands. The use of non-circular nozzles introduces some specific constraints in the printing process. The geometry of the nozzle determines the stable printing directions, and nozzle orientation becomes a critical parameter to achieve a stable printing. Strand torsion, a phenomenon that remains unnoticed with circular nozzles, may result in relevant changes in the geometrical features of the printed structures.

JTD Keywords: calcium phosphate, ceramic, ceramics, flow, geometry, microextrusion, robocasting, Calcium phosphate, Ceramic, Direct ink writing, Microextrusion, Robocasting, Scaffolds

Hodásová L, Sans J, Molina BG, Alemán C, Llanes L, Fargas G, Armelin E, (2021). Polymer infiltrated ceramic networks with biocompatible adhesive and 3D-printed highly porous scaffolds Additive Manufacturing 39, 101850

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Herein, for the first time is described the design of a novel porous zirconia scaffolds manufactured by using polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) and 3D-printing technologies. Cubic geometry of pieces was obtained by perpendicular layer-by-layer deposition of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) and Pluronic® hydrogel ceramic paste. The specimens were prepared by robocasting assembly with 50% infill and 50% of pores, as feed setup. Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri(ethylenglycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymer, a well-known biocompatible adhesive, which is widely used in dentistry field, was employed to reinforce the pores of the 3D-printed ceramic structure. The success of the acrylate polymer infiltration above the scaffold surface and among the 3Y-TZP filaments was achieved through previous ceramic functionalization with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS). The well infiltration of the material on pores was evaluated by gravimetry, obtaining a value of 87.5 ± 6.6% of pores covered by the adhesive. Such successful infiltration of methacrylate copolymer had also a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffold material, being the PICN sample that one with the highest elongation resistance. The new system showed reduced bacteria proliferation, over 24 h of incubation with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Streptococcus salivarius bacteria lines, when compared to the control.

JTD Keywords: acrylate polymer, bacteria colonization, yttrium stabilized zirconia, Acrylate polymer, Bacteria colonization, Robocasting, Yttrium stabilized zirconia