by Keyword: Seeding and spreading
Ferrer I, Andrés-Benito P, Garcia-Esparcia P, López-Gonzalez I, Valiente D, Jordán-Pirla M, Carmona M, Sala-Jarque J, Gil V, Del Rio JA, (2022). Differences in Tau Seeding in Newborn and Adult Wild-Type Mice International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 4789
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies are common neurodegenerative diseases in older adults; in contrast, abnormal tau deposition in neurons and glial cells occurs only exceptionally in children. Sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from sporadic AD (sAD) containing paired helical filaments (PHFs) were inoculated unilaterally into the thalamus in newborn and three-month-old wild-type C57BL/6 mice, which were killed at different intervals from 24 h to six months after inoculation. Tau-positive cells were scanty and practically disappeared at three months in mice inoculated at the age of a newborn. In contrast, large numbers of tau-positive cells, including neurons and oligodendrocytes, were found in the thalamus of mice inoculated at three months and killed at the ages of six months and nine months. Mice inoculated at the age of newborn and re-inoculated at the age of three months showed similar numbers and distribution of positive cells in the thalamus at six months and nine months. This study shows that (a) differences in tau seeding between newborn and young adults may be related to the ratios between 3Rtau and 4Rtau, and the shift to 4Rtau predominance in adults, together with the immaturity of connections in newborn mice, and (b) intracerebral inoculation of sAD PHFs in newborn mice does not protect from tau seeding following intracerebral inoculation of sAD PHFs in young/adult mice.
JTD Keywords: alzheimer's disease, alzheimer-disease, expression, mouse tau, neurofibrillary tangles, newborn, pathological tau, propagation, protein-tau, spread, thalamus, transgenic mice, Paired helical filaments, Tau seeding and spreading
Andrés-Benito, Pol, Carmona, Margarita, Jordán, Mónica, Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín, Santamaría, Enrique, del Rio, José Antoni, Ferrer, Isidro, (2022). Host Tau Genotype Specifically Designs and Regulates Tau Seeding and Spreading and Host Tau Transformation Following Intrahippocampal Injection of Identical Tau AD Inoculum International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 718
Several studies have demonstrated the different characteristics of tau seeding and spreading following intracerebral inoculation in murine models of tau-enriched fractions of brain homogenates from AD and other tauopathies. The present study is centered on the importance of host tau in tau seeding and the molecular changes associated with the transformation of host tau into abnormal tau. The brains of three adult murine genotypes expressing different forms of tau—WT (murine 4Rtau), hTau (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein and heterozygous expressing human forms of 3Rtau and 4Rtau proteins), and mtWT (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein)—were analyzed following unilateral hippocampal inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions from the same AD and control cases. The present study reveals that (a) host tau is mandatory for tau seeding and spreading following tau inoculation from sarkosyl-insoluble fractions obtained from AD brains; (b) tau seeding does not occur following intracerebral inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from controls; (c) tau seeding and spreading are characterized by variable genotype-dependent tau phosphorylation and tau nitration, MAP2 phosphorylation, and variable activation of kinases that co-localize with abnormal tau deposits; (d) transformation of host tau into abnormal tau is an active process associated with the activation of specific kinases; (e) tau seeding is accompanied by modifications in tau splicing, resulting in the expression of new 3Rtau and 4Rtau isoforms, thus indicating that inoculated tau seeds have the capacity to model exon 10 splicing of the host mapt or MAPT with a genotype-dependent pattern; (e) selective regional and cellular vulnerabilities, and different molecular compositions of the deposits, are dependent on the host tau of mice injected with identical AD tau inocula.
JTD Keywords: 3rtau and 4rtau, alzheimer's disease, alzheimer’s disease, brains, granulovacuolar degeneration, host tau, htau, intranuclear distribution, messenger-rna, pathological tau, propagation, protein-kinases, seeding and spreading, tauopathies, transmission, 3rtau and 4rtau, Alzheimers-disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Host tau, Htau, Seeding and spreading, Tauopathies
Ferrer, Isidro, Andrés-Benito, Pol, Zelaya, Maria Victoria, Aguirre, Maria Elena Erro, Carmona, Margarita, Ausín, Karina, Lachén-Montes, Mercedes, Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín, Santamaría, Enrique, del Río, José Antonio, (2020). Familial globular glial tauopathy linked to MAPT mutations: molecular neuropathology and seeding capacity of a prototypical mixed neuronal and glial tauopathy Acta Neuropathologica 139, (4), 735-771
Globular glial tauopathy (GGT) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the grey matter and white matter (WM) and characterized by neuronal deposition of hyper-phosphorylated, abnormally conformed, truncated, oligomeric 4Rtau in neurons and in glial cells forming typical globular astrocyte and oligodendrocyte inclusions (GAIs and GOIs, respectively) and coiled bodies. Present studies centre on four genetic GGT cases from two unrelated families bearing the P301T mutation in MAPT and one case of sporadic GGT (sGGT) and one case of GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation, for comparative purposes. Clinical and neuropathological manifestations and biochemical profiles of phospho-tau are subjected to individual variations in patients carrying the same mutation, even in carriers of the same family, independently of the age of onset, gender, and duration of the disease. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, transcriptomic, proteomics and phosphoproteomics, and intra-cerebral inoculation of brain homogenates to wild-type (WT) mice were the methods employed. In GGT cases linked to MAPT P301T mutation, astrocyte markers GFAP, ALDH1L1, YKL40 mRNA and protein, GJA1 mRNA, and AQ4 protein are significantly increased; glutamate transporter GLT1 (EAAT2) and glucose transporter (SLC2A1) decreased; mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) increased, and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 5 (UCP5) almost absent in GAIs in frontal cortex (FC). Expression of oligodendrocyte markers OLIG1 and OLIG2mRNA, and myelin-related genes MBP, PLP1, CNP, MAG, MAL, MOG, and MOBP are significantly decreased in WM; CNPase, PLP1, and MBP antibodies reveal reduction and disruption of myelinated fibres; and SMI31 antibodies mark axonal damage in the WM. Altered expression of AQ4, GLUC-t, and GLT-1 is also observed in sGGT and in GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation. These alterations point to primary astrogliopathy and oligodendrogliopathy in GGT. In addition, GGT linked to MAPT P301T mutation proteotypes unveil a proteostatic imbalance due to widespread (phospho)proteomic dearrangement in the FC and WM, triggering a disruption of neuron projection morphogenesis and synaptic transmission. Identification of hyper-phosphorylation of variegated proteins calls into question the concept of phospho-tau-only alteration in the pathogenesis of GGT. Finally, unilateral inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions of GGT homogenates from GGT linked to MAPT P301T, sGGT, and GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation in the hippocampus, corpus callosum, or caudate/putamen in wild-type mice produces seeding, and time- and region-dependent spreading of phosphorylated, non-oligomeric, and non-truncated 4Rtau and 3Rtau, without GAIs and GOIs but only of coiled bodies. These experiments prove that host tau strains are important in the modulation of cellular vulnerability and phenotypes of phospho-tau aggregates.
JTD Keywords: Globular glial tauopathy, Tau, Astrogliopathy, Oligodendrogliopathy, Phosphoproteome, Seeding and spreading
Ferrer, I., García, M. A., Carmona, M., Andrés-Benito, P., Torrejón-Escribano, B., Garcia-Esparcia, P., Del Rio, J. A., (2019). Involvement of oligodendrocytes in tau seeding and spreading in tauopathies Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 11, 112
Introduction: Human tau seeding and spreading occur following intracerebral inoculation into different gray matter regions of brain homogenates obtained from tauopathies in transgenic mice expressing wild or mutant tau, and in wild-type (WT) mice. However, little is known about tau propagation following inoculation in the white matter.
Objectives: The present study is geared to learning about the patterns of tau seeding and cells involved following unilateral inoculation in the corpus callosum of homogenates from sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), primary age-related tauopathy (PART: neuronal 4Rtau and 3Rtau), pure aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG: astroglial 4Rtau with thorn-shaped astrocytes TSAs), globular glial tauopathy (GGT: 4Rtau with neuronal tau and specific tau inclusions in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, GAIs and GOIs, respectively), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP: 4Rtau with neuronal inclusions, tufted astrocytes and coiled bodies), Pick's disease (PiD: 3Rtau with characteristic Pick bodies in neurons and tau containing fibrillar astrocytes), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration linked to P301L mutation (FTLD-P301L: 4Rtau familial tauopathy).
Methods: Adult WT mice were inoculated unilaterally in the lateral corpus callosum with sarkosyl-insoluble fractions or with sarkosyl-soluble fractions from the mentioned tauopathies; mice were killed from 4 to 7 months after inoculation. Brains were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and processed for immunohistochemistry.
Results: Tau seeding occurred in the ipsilateral corpus callosum and was also detected in the contralateral corpus callosum. Phospho-tau deposits were found in oligodendrocytes similar to coiled bodies and in threads. Moreover, tau deposits co-localized with active (phosphorylated) tau kinases p38 and ERK 1/2, suggesting active tau phosphorylation of murine tau. TSAs, GAIs, GOIs, tufted astrocytes, and tau-containing fibrillar astrocytes were not seen in any case. Tau deposits were often associated with slight myelin disruption and the presence of small PLP1-immunoreactive globules and dots in the ipsilateral corpus callosum 6 months after inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from every tauopathy.
Conclusions: Seeding and spreading of human tau in the corpus callosum of WT mice occurs in oligodendrocytes, thereby supporting the idea of a role of oligodendrogliopathy in tau seeding and spreading in the white matter in tauopathies. Slight differences in the predominance of threads or oligodendroglial deposits suggest disease differences in the capacity of tau seeding and spreading among tauopathies.
JTD Keywords: AD, ARTAG, GGT, PiD, Seeding and spreading, Tau, Tauopathies