by Keyword: Smad3

Duch, P, Díaz-Valdivia, N, Gabasa, M, Ikemori, R, Arshakyan, M, Fernández-Nogueira, P, Llorente, A, Teixido, C, Ramírez, J, Pereda, J, Chuliá-Peris, L, Galbis, JM, Hilberg, F, Reguart, N, Radisky, DC, Alcaraz, J, (2024). Aberrant TIMP-1 production in tumor-associated fibroblasts drives the selective benefits of nintedanib in lung adenocarcinoma Cancer Science ,

The fibrotic tumor microenvironment is a pivotal therapeutic target. Nintedanib, a clinically approved multikinase antifibrotic inhibitor, is effective against lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) but not squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Previous studies have implicated the secretome of tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in the selective effects of nintedanib in ADC, but the driving factor(s) remained unidentified. Here we examined the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), a tumor-promoting cytokine overproduced in ADC-TAFs. To this aim, we combined genetic approaches with in vitro and in vivo preclinical models based on patient-derived TAFs. Nintedanib reduced TIMP-1 production more efficiently in ADC-TAFs than SCC-TAFs through a SMAD3-dependent mechanism. Cell culture experiments indicated that silencing TIMP1 in ADC-TAFs abolished the therapeutic effects of nintedanib on cancer cell growth and invasion, which were otherwise enhanced by the TAF secretome. Consistently, co-injecting ADC cells with TIMP1-knockdown ADC-TAFs into immunocompromised mice elicited a less effective reduction of tumor growth and invasion under nintedanib treatment compared to tumors bearing unmodified fibroblasts. Our results unveil a key mechanism underlying the selective mode of action of nintedanib in ADC based on the excessive production of TIMP-1 in ADC-TAFs. We further pinpoint reduced SMAD3 expression and consequent limited TIMP-1 production in SCC-TAFs as key for the resistance of SCC to nintedanib. These observations strongly support the emerging role of TIMP-1 as a critical regulator of therapy response in solid tumors.

JTD Keywords: Cancer-associated fibroblast,fibrosis,nintedanib,non-small-cell lung cancer,smad3,therapy resistance,timp-, Cell carcinoma,breast-cancer,expression,progression,inhibitor,blockade,efficac

Juste-Lanas, Y, Díaz-Valdivia, N, Llorente, A, Ikemori, R, Bernardo, A, Arshakyan, M, Borau, C, Ramírez, J, Ruffinelli, JC, Nadal, E, Reguart, N, García-Aznar, JM, Alcaraz, J, (2023). 3D collagen migration patterns reveal a SMAD3-dependent and TGF-β1-independent mechanism of recruitment for tumour-associated fibroblasts in lung adenocarcinoma British Journal Of Cancer 128, 967-981

The TGF-β1 transcription factor SMAD3 is epigenetically repressed in tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but not adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients, which elicits a compensatory increase in SMAD2 that renders SCC-TAFs less fibrotic. Here we examined the effects of altered SMAD2/3 in fibroblast migration and its impact on the desmoplastic stroma formation in lung cancer.We used a microfluidic device to examine descriptors of early protrusions and subsequent migration in 3D collagen gels upon knocking down SMAD2 or SMAD3 by shRNA in control fibroblasts and TAFs.High SMAD3 conditions as in shSMAD2 fibroblasts and ADC-TAFs exhibited a migratory advantage in terms of protrusions (fewer and longer) and migration (faster and more directional) selectively without TGF-β1 along with Erk1/2 hyperactivation. This enhanced migration was abrogated by TGF-β1 as well as low glucose medium and the MEK inhibitor Trametinib. In contrast, high SMAD2 fibroblasts were poorly responsive to TGF-β1, high glucose and Trametinib, exhibiting impaired migration in all conditions.The basal migration advantage of high SMAD3 fibroblasts provides a straightforward mechanism underlying the larger accumulation of TAFs previously reported in ADC compared to SCC. Moreover, our results encourage using MEK inhibitors in ADC-TAFs but not SCC-TAFs.© 2022. The Author(s).

JTD Keywords: cancer, cell, degradation, nintedanib, osteoblast migration, phenotype, progression, protrusion dynamics, smad3, Growth-factor-beta

Duch, P, Diaz-Valdivia, N, Ikemori, R, Gabasa, M, Radisky, ES, Arshakyan, M, Gea-Sorli, S, Mateu-Bosch, A, Bragado, P, Carrasco, JL, Mori, H, Ramirez, J, Teixido, C, Reguart, N, Fillat, C, Radisky, DC, Alcaraz, J, (2022). Aberrant TIMP-1 overexpression in tumor-associated fibroblasts drives tumor progression through CD63 in lung adenocarcinoma Matrix Biology 111, 207-225

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an important regulator of extracellular matrix turnover that has been traditionally regarded as a potential tumor suppressor owing to its inhibitory effects of matrix metal-loproteinases. Intriguingly, this interpretation has been challenged by the consistent observation that increased expression of TIMP-1 is associated with poor prognosis in virtually all cancer types including lung cancer, supporting a tumor-promoting function. However, how TIMP-1 is dysregulated within the tumor micro-environment and how it drives tumor progression in lung cancer is poorly understood. We analyzed the expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface receptor CD63 in two major lung cancer subtypes: lung adenocarci-noma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and defined the tumor-promoting effects of their interac-tion. We found that TIMP-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in ADC compared to SCC. Mechanistically, TIMP-1 overexpression was mediated by the selective hyperactivity of the pro-fibrotic TGF-61/SMAD3 pathway in ADC-TAFs. Likewise, CD63 was upregulated in ADC compared to SCC cells. Genetic analyses revealed that TIMP-1 secreted by TGF-61-activated ADC-TAFs is both nec-essary and sufficient to enhance growth and invasion of ADC cancer cells in culture, and that tumor cell expression of CD63 was required for these effects. Consistently, in vivo analyses revealed that ADC cells co-injected with fibroblasts with reduced SMAD3 or TIMP-1 expression into immunocompromised mice attenu-ated tumor aggressiveness compared to tumors bearing parental fibroblasts. We also found that high TIMP1 and CD63 mRNA levels combined define a stronger prognostic biomarker than TIMP1 alone. Our results identify an excessive stromal TIMP-1 within the tumor microenvironment selectively in lung ADC, and implicate it in a novel tumor-promoting TAF-carcinoma crosstalk, thereby pointing to TIMP-1/CD63 interaction as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

JTD Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblast, cd63, fibrosis, smad3, tgf-β1, timp-1, Angiogenesis, Cancer cells, Cancer-associated fibroblast, Cd63, Expression, Fibrosis, Hepatocellular-carcinoma, Metalloproteinases, Nintedanib, Prognostic-significance, Protein, Smad3, Squamous-cell carcinoma, Tgf-? 1, Tgf-β1, Timp-1, Tissue inhibitor, Tumor microenvironment