by Keyword: Time-temperature

Sans, Jordi, Arnau, Marc, Bosque, Ricard, Turon, Pau, Aleman, Carlos, (2024). Synthesis of urea from CO2 and N2 fixation under mild conditions using polarized hydroxyapatite as a catalyst Sustainable Energy & Fuels 8, 1473-1482

Polarized hydroxyapatite (p-HAp) has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of urea coupling N-2, CO2 and water under mild reaction conditions when compared to classical nitrogen fixation reactions, such as the Haber-Bosch process. The reaction of 3 bar of N-2 and 3 bar of CO2 under UV illumination at 120 degrees C (for 48 h) results in a urea yield of 1.5 +/- 0.1 mmol per gram of catalyst (g(c)) with a selectivity close to 80%, whereas the reaction is not successful without UV irradiation. However, the addition of small amounts of NO (314 ppm) produces 15.2 +/- 0.6 and 4.6 +/- 0.4 mmol g(c)(-1) with and without UV illumination, respectively, with the selectivity in both cases being close to 100%. As nitrogen fixation without UV irradiation using p-HAp as a catalyst is a challenge, studies with NO have been conducted varying the reaction conditions (time, pressure and temperature). The results suggest a mechanism based on the production of NH4+ through the oxidation of N-2.

JTD Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Carbon,dinitrogen,reduction,nitrogen,ammonia,dioxid, Catalyst selectivity, Condition, Haber-bosch process, Hydroxyapatite, Irradiation, Metabolism, Mild reaction conditions, Nitrogen fixation, Pressure and temperature, Reaction conditions, Time pressures, Time-temperature, Urea, Uv illuminations, Without uv irradiations, ]+ catalyst