by Keyword: active targeting

Woythe L, Tholen MME, Rosier BJHM, Albertazzi L, (2023). Single-Particle Functionality Imaging of Antibody-Conjugated Nanoparticles in Complex Media Acs Applied Bio Materials 6, 171-181

The properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can change upon contact with serum components, occluding the NP surface by forming a biomolecular corona. It is believed that targeted NPs can lose their functionality due to this biological coating, thus losing specificity and selectivity toward target cells and leading to poor therapeutic efficiency. A better understanding of how the biomolecular corona affects NP ligand functionality is needed to maintain NP targeting capabilities. However, techniques that can quantify the functionality of NPs at a single-particle level in a complex medium are limited and often laborious in sample preparation, measurement, and analysis. In this work, the influence of serum exposure on the functionality of antibody-functionalized NPs was quantified using a straightforward total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy method and evaluated in cell uptake studies. The single-particle resolution of TIRF reveals the interparticle functionality heterogeneity and the substantial differences between NPs conjugated with covalent and noncovalent methods. Notably, only NPs covalently conjugated with a relatively high amount of antibodies maintain their functionality to a certain extent and still showed cell specificity and selectivity toward high receptor density cells after incubation in full serum. The presented study emphasizes the importance of single-particle functional characterization of NPs in complex media, contributing to the understanding and design of targeted NPs that retain their cell specificity and selectivity in biologically relevant conditions.

JTD Keywords: binding, biomolecular corona, cell selectivity, heterogeneity, nanoparticle conjugation, protein corona, tirf microscopy, Active targeting, Biomolecular corona, Cell selectivity, Heterogeneity, Nanoparticle conjugation, Tirf microscopy

Woythe L, Madhikar P, Feiner-Gracia N, Storm C, Albertazzi L, (2022). A Single-Molecule View at Nanoparticle Targeting Selectivity: Correlating Ligand Functionality and Cell Receptor Density Acs Nano 16, 3785-3796

Antibody-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used to increase the targeting selectivity toward cells of interest. At a molecular level, the number of functional antibodies on the NP surface and the density of receptors on the target cell determine the targeting interaction. To rationally develop selective NPs, the single-molecule quantitation of both parameters is highly desirable. However, techniques able to count molecules with a nanometric resolution are scarce. Here, we developed a labeling approach to quantify the number of functional cetuximabs conjugated to NPs and the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in breast cancer cells using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). The single-molecule resolution of dSTORM allows quantifying molecules at the nanoscale, giving a detailed insight into the distributions of individual NP ligands and cell receptors. Additionally, we predicted the fraction of accessible antibody-conjugated NPs using a geometrical model, showing that the total number exceeds the accessible number of antibodies. Finally, we correlated the NP functionality, cell receptor density, and NP uptake to identify the highest cell uptake selectivity regimes. We conclude that single-molecule functionality mapping using dSTORM provides a molecular understanding of NP targeting, aiding the rational design of selective nanomedicines.

JTD Keywords: active targeting, active targeting dstorm, antibodies, dstorm, heterogeneity, multivalency, nanomedicine, nanoparticle functionality, size, super-resolution microscopy, surface, Active targeting, Antibodies, Cell membranes, Cell receptors, Cytology, Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, Dstorm, Heterogeneity, Ligands, Medical nanotechnology, Molecules, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle functionality, Nanoparticle targeting, Nanoparticles, Optical reconstruction, Single molecule, Stochastic systems, Stochastics, Super-resolution microscopy, Superresolution microscopy