by Keyword: bone-formation

López-Canosa, Adrián, Pérez-Amodio, Soledad, Engel, Elisabeth, Castaño, Oscar, (2022). Microfluidic 3D Platform to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cell Recruitment by Bioactive Materials Acta Biomaterialia 151, 264-277

Most of the conventional in vitro models to test biomaterial-driven vascularization are too simplistic to recapitulate the complex interactions taking place in the actual cell microenvironment, which results in a poor prediction of the in vivo performance of the material. However, during the last decade, cell culture models based on microfluidic technology have allowed attaining unprecedented levels of tissue biomimicry. In this work, we propose a microfluidic-based 3D model to evaluate the effect of bioactive biomaterials capable of releasing signalling cues (such as ions or proteins) in the recruitment of endogenous endothelial progenitor cells, a key step in the vascularization process. The usability of the platform is demonstrated using experimentally-validated finite element models and migration and proliferation studies with rat endothelial progenitor cells (rEPCs) and bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-rMSCs). As a proof of concept of biomaterial evaluation, the response of rEPCs to an electrospun composite made of polylactic acid with calcium phosphates nanoparticles (PLA+CaP) was compared in a co-culture microenvironment with BM-rMSC to a regular PLA control. Our results show a significantly higher rEPCs migration and the upregulation of several pro-inflammatory and proangiogenic proteins in the case of the PLA+CaP. The effects of osteopontin (OPN) on the rEPCs migratory response were also studied using this platform, suggesting its important role in mediating their recruitment to a calcium-rich microenvironment. This new tool could be applied to screen the capacity of a variety of bioactive scaffolds to induce vascularization and accelerate the preclinical testing of biomaterials. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: : For many years researchers have used neovascularization models to evaluate bioactive biomaterials both in vitro, with low predictive results due to their poor biomimicry and minimal control over cell cues such as spatiotemporal biomolecule signaling, and in vivo models, presenting drawbacks such as being highly costly, time-consuming, poor human extrapolation, and ethically controversial. We describe a compact microphysiological platform designed for the evaluation of proangiogenesis in biomaterials through the quantification of the level of sprouting in a mimicked endothelium able to react to gradients of biomaterial-released signals in a fibrin-based extracellular matrix. This model is a useful tool to perform preclinical trustworthy studies in tissue regeneration and to better understand the different elements involved in the complex process of vascularization.Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

JTD Keywords: angiogenesis, bioactive materials, bone regeneration, bone-formation, calcium-phosphate, extracellular calcium, in-vitro, interstitial flow, ion release, microfluidic model, signalling gradient, substitutes, tissue engineering, vascularization, vegf, Ion release, Mesenchymal stem-cells, Tissue engineering, Vascularization

Konka, J, Espanol, M, Bosch, BM, de Oliveira, E, Ginebra, MP, (2021). Maturation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in physiological fluids: a physicochemical and proteomic study Materials Today Bio 12, 100137

Biomimetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) as a bioactive material exhibits exceptional intrinsic osteoinductive and osteogenic properties because of its nanostructure and composition, which promote a favorable microenvironment. Its high reactivity has been hypothesized to play a relevant role in the in vivo performance, mediated by the interaction with the biological fluids, which is amplified by its high specific surface area. Paradoxically, this high reactivity is also behind the in vitro cytotoxicity of this material, especially pro-nounced in static conditions. The present work explores the structural and physicochemical changes that CDHA undergoes in contact with physiological fluids and to investigate its interaction with proteins. Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite discs with different micro/nanostructures, coarse (C) and fine (F), were exposed to cell-free complete culture medium over extended periods of time: 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 50 days. Precipitate formation was not observed in any of the materials in contact with the physiological fluid, which would indicate that the ionic exchanges were linked to incorporation into the crystal structure of CDHA or in the hydrated layer. In fact, CDHA experienced a maturation process, with a progressive increase in crystallinity and the Ca/P ratio, accompanied by an uptake of Mg and a B-type carbonation process, with a gradual propagation into the core of the samples. However, the reactivity of biomimetic hydroxyapatite was highly dependent on the specific surface area and was amplified in nanosized needle-like crystal structures (F), whereas in coarse specimens the ionic exchanges were restricted to the surface, with low penetration in the material bulk. In addition to showing a higher protein adsorption on F substrates, the proteomics study revealed the existence of protein selectivity to-ward F or C microstructures, as well as the capability of CDHA, and more remarkably of F-CDHA, to concentrate specific proteins from the culture medium. Finally, a substantial improvement in the material's ability to support cell proliferation was observed after the CDHA maturation process.

JTD Keywords: calcium phosphates, ion exchange, nanostructure, protein adsorption, Biological-systems, Biomaterials, Biomimetic hydroxyapatites, Biomimetics, Bone-formation, Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphates, Cell proliferation, Crystal structure, Crystallinity, Crystals structures, Culture medium, Growth, High reactivity, Hydroxyapatite, In-vitro, Ion exchange, Ionic exchange, Molecular biology, Nanocrystalline apatites, Nanostructure, Nanostructures, Octacalcium phosphate, Physicochemical studies, Physiological fluids, Physiology, Protein adsorption, Proteins, Proteomic studies, Raman spectroscopy, Serum-albumin, Specific surface area