by Keyword: brains

Andrés-Benito, Pol, Carmona, Margarita, Jordán, Mónica, Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín, Santamaría, Enrique, del Rio, José Antoni, Ferrer, Isidro, (2022). Host Tau Genotype Specifically Designs and Regulates Tau Seeding and Spreading and Host Tau Transformation Following Intrahippocampal Injection of Identical Tau AD Inoculum International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 23, 718

Several studies have demonstrated the different characteristics of tau seeding and spreading following intracerebral inoculation in murine models of tau-enriched fractions of brain homogenates from AD and other tauopathies. The present study is centered on the importance of host tau in tau seeding and the molecular changes associated with the transformation of host tau into abnormal tau. The brains of three adult murine genotypes expressing different forms of tau—WT (murine 4Rtau), hTau (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein and heterozygous expressing human forms of 3Rtau and 4Rtau proteins), and mtWT (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein)—were analyzed following unilateral hippocampal inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions from the same AD and control cases. The present study reveals that (a) host tau is mandatory for tau seeding and spreading following tau inoculation from sarkosyl-insoluble fractions obtained from AD brains; (b) tau seeding does not occur following intracerebral inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from controls; (c) tau seeding and spreading are characterized by variable genotype-dependent tau phosphorylation and tau nitration, MAP2 phosphorylation, and variable activation of kinases that co-localize with abnormal tau deposits; (d) transformation of host tau into abnormal tau is an active process associated with the activation of specific kinases; (e) tau seeding is accompanied by modifications in tau splicing, resulting in the expression of new 3Rtau and 4Rtau isoforms, thus indicating that inoculated tau seeds have the capacity to model exon 10 splicing of the host mapt or MAPT with a genotype-dependent pattern; (e) selective regional and cellular vulnerabilities, and different molecular compositions of the deposits, are dependent on the host tau of mice injected with identical AD tau inocula.

JTD Keywords: 3rtau and 4rtau, alzheimer's disease, alzheimer’s disease, brains, granulovacuolar degeneration, host tau, htau, intranuclear distribution, messenger-rna, pathological tau, propagation, protein-kinases, seeding and spreading, tauopathies, transmission, 3rtau and 4rtau, Alzheimers-disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Host tau, Htau, Seeding and spreading, Tauopathies

Guerrero-Rosado O, Verschure P, (2021). Robot regulatory behaviour based on fundamental homeostatic and allostatic principles Procedia Computer Science 190, 292-300

Animals in their ecological context behave not only in response to external events, such as opportunities and threats but also according to their internal needs. As a result, the survival of the organism is achieved through regulatory behaviour. Although homeostatic and allostatic principles play an important role in such behaviour, how an animal's brain implements these principles is not fully understood yet. In this paper, we propose a new model of regulatory behaviour inspired by the functioning of the medial Reticular Formation (mRF). This structure is spread throughout the brainstem and has shown generalized Central Nervous System (CNS) arousal control and fundamental action-selection properties. We propose that a model based on the mRF allows the flexibility needed to be implemented in diverse domains, while it would allow integration of other components such as place cells to enrich the agent's performance. Such a model will be implemented in a mobile robot that will navigate replicating the behaviour of the sand-diving lizard, a benchmark for regulatory behaviour. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Action selection, Allostasi, Allostasis, Animal brain, Animals, Behavior-based, Brainstem, Central nervous systems, Cognitive architecture, Cognitive architectures, Elsevier, Homeostasis, Homoeostasis, Magnetorheological fluids, Regulatory behavior, Regulatory behaviour, Reticular formation, Robots