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by Keyword: cancer immunotherapy

Hinnekens, C, De Smedt, SC, Fraire, JC, Braeckmans, K, (2023). Non-viral engineering of NK cells Biotechnology Advances 68, 108212

The last decade has witnessed great progress in the field of adoptive cell therapies, with the authorization of Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) in 2017 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a crucial stepstone. Since then, five more CAR-T therapies have been approved for the treatment of hematological malignancies. While this is a great step forward to treating several types of blood cancers, CAR-T cell therapies are still associated with severe side-effects such as Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. Because of this, there has been continued interest in Natural Killer cells which avoid these side-effects while offering the possibility to generate allogeneic cell therapies. Similar to T-cells, NK cells can be genetically modified to improve their therapeutic efficacy in a variety of ways. In contrast to T cells, viral transduction of NK cells remains inefficient and induces cytotoxic effects. Viral vectors also require a lengthy and expensive product development process and are accompanied by certain risks such as insertional mutagenesis. Therefore, non-viral transfection technologies are avidly being developed aimed at addressing these shortcomings of viral vectors. In this review we will present an overview of the potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapies and the non-viral transfection technologies that have been explored to engineer them.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: adoptive cell therapy, cancer immunotherapy, immunotherapy, messenger-rna delivery, nanoparticle, nk cells, non -viral engineering, sonoporation, t-cell, transfection, ultrasound, Adoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Cell engineering, Natural-killer-cells, Nk cells, Non-viral engineering


Cañellas-Socias A, Cortina C, Hernando-Momblona X, Palomo-Ponce S, Mulholland EJ, Turon G, Mateo L, Conti S, Roman O, Sevillano M, Slebe F, Stork D, Caballé-Mestres A, Berenguer-Llergo A, Álvarez-Varela A, Fenderico N, Novellasdemunt L, Jiménez-Gracia L, Sipka T, Bardia L, Lorden P, Colombelli J, Heyn H, Trepat X, Tejpar S, Sancho E, Tauriello DVF, Leedham S, Attolini CS, Batlle E, (2022). Metastatic recurrence in colorectal cancer arises from residual EMP1+ cells Nature 611, 603-+

Around 30-40% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing curative resection of the primary tumour will develop metastases in the subsequent years1. Therapies to prevent disease relapse remain an unmet medical need. Here we uncover the identity and features of the residual tumour cells responsible for CRC relapse. An analysis of single-cell transcriptomes of samples from patients with CRC revealed that the majority of genes associated with a poor prognosis are expressed by a unique tumour cell population that we named high-relapse cells (HRCs). We established a human-like mouse model of microsatellite-stable CRC that undergoes metastatic relapse after surgical resection of the primary tumour. Residual HRCs occult in mouse livers after primary CRC surgery gave rise to multiple cell types over time, including LGR5+ stem-like tumour cells2-4, and caused overt metastatic disease. Using Emp1 (encoding epithelial membrane protein 1) as a marker gene for HRCs, we tracked and selectively eliminated this cell population. Genetic ablation of EMP1high cells prevented metastatic recurrence and mice remained disease-free after surgery. We also found that HRC-rich micrometastases were infiltrated with T cells, yet became progressively immune-excluded during outgrowth. Treatment with neoadjuvant immunotherapy eliminated residual metastatic cells and prevented mice from relapsing after surgery. Together, our findings reveal the cell-state dynamics of residual disease in CRC and anticipate that therapies targeting HRCs may help to avoid metastatic relapse.© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

JTD Keywords: colonization, defines, human colon, mutations, plasticity, retrieval, stem-cells, subtypes, underlie, Animal, Animal cell, Animal experiment, Animal model, Animal tissue, Animals, Article, Cancer, Cancer growth, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer inhibition, Cancer recurrence, Cancer staging, Cell, Cell adhesion, Cell migration, Cell population, Cell surface receptor, Cohort analysis, Colorectal cancer, Colorectal neoplasms, Colorectal tumor, Comprehensive molecular characterization, Controlled study, Crispr-cas9 system, Cytoskeleton, Disease exacerbation, Disease progression, Dynamics, Emp1 gene, Epithelial membrane protein-1, Extracellular matrix, Flow cytometry, Fluorescence intensity, Gene expression, Genetics, Human, Human cell, Humans, Immune response, Immunofluorescence, In situ hybridization, Marker gene, Metastasis potential, Mice, Minimal residual disease, Mouse, Neoplasm proteins, Neoplasm recurrence, local, Neoplasm, residual, Nonhuman, Pathology, Phenotype, Prevention and control, Protein, Receptors, cell surface, Single cell rna seq, Tumor, Tumor protein, Tumor recurrence