by Keyword: competition

Rodríguez-Contreras, A, Torres, D, Piñera-Avellaneda, D, Pérez-Palou, L, Ortiz-Hernández, M, Ginebra, MP, Calero, JA, Manero, JM, Rupérez, E, (2023). Dual-Action Effect of Gallium and Silver Providing Osseointegration and Antibacterial Properties to Calcium Titanate Coatings on Porous Titanium Implants International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 24, 8762

Previously, functional coatings on 3D-printed titanium implants were developed to improve their biointegration by separately incorporating Ga and Ag on the biomaterial surface. Now, a thermochemical treatment modification is proposed to study the effect of their simultaneous incorporation. Different concentrations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 are evaluated, and the obtained surfaces are completely characterized. Ion release, cytotoxicity, and bioactivity studies complement the characterization. The provided antibacterial effect of the surfaces is analyzed, and cell response is assessed by the study of SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The Ti surface doping is confirmed by the formation of Ga-containing Ca titanates and nanoparticles of metallic Ag within the titanate coating. The surfaces generated with all combinations of AgNO3 and Ga(NO3)3 concentrations show bioactivity. The bacterial assay confirms a strong bactericidal impact achieved by the effect of both Ga and Ag present on the surface, especially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the main pathogens involved in orthopedic implant failures. SaOS-2 cells adhere and proliferate on the Ga/Ag-doped Ti surfaces, and the presence of gallium favors cell differentiation. The dual effect of both metallic agents doping the titanium surface provides bioactivity while protecting the biomaterial from the most frequent pathogens in implantology.

JTD Keywords: 3d-printing, agent, antibacterial activity, bioactive ti, biomaterials, coatings, competition, cu, gallium, glasses, ions, metal, porous structures, promote osseointegration, silver, titanium implants, In-vitro, Porous structures, Titanium implants

Zhang, KX, Klingner, A, Le Gars, Y, Misra, S, Magdanz, V, Khalil, ISM, (2023). Locomotion of bovine spermatozoa during the transition from individual cells to bundles Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 120, e2211911120

Various locomotion strategies employed by microorganisms are observed in complex biological environments. Spermatozoa assemble into bundles to improve their swimming efficiency compared to individual cells. However, the dynamic mechanisms for the formation of sperm bundles have not been fully characterized. In this study, we numerically and experimentally investigate the locomotion of spermatozoa during the transition from individual cells to bundles of two cells. Three consecutive dynamic behaviors are found across the course of the transition: hydrodynamic attraction/repulsion, alignment, and synchronization. The hydrodynamic attraction/repulsion depends on the relative orientation and distance between spermatozoa as well as their flagellar wave patterns and phase shift. Once the heads are attached, we find a stable equilibrium of the rotational hydrodynamics resulting in the alignment of the heads. The synchronization results from the combined influence of hydrodynamic and mechanical cell-to-cell interactions. Additionally, we find that the flagellar beat is regulated by the interactions during the bundle formation, whereby spermatozoa can synchronize their beats to enhance their swimming velocity.

JTD Keywords: behavior, cilia, collective locomotion, collective motion, competition, flagellar propulsion, hydrodynamics, motility, propulsion, sperm cooperation, tracking, Collective locomotion, Flagellar propulsion, Flagellar synchronization, Spermatozoa bundle

Soler, PMI, Hidalgo, C, Fekete, Z, Zalanyi, L, Khalil, ISM, Yeste, M, Magdanz, V, (2022). Bundle formation of sperm: Influence of environmental factors Frontiers In Endocrinology 13, 957684

Cooperative behaviour of sperm is one of the mechanisms that plays a role in sperm competition. It has been observed in several species that spermatozoa interact with each other to form agglomerates or bundles. In this study, we investigate the effect of physical and biochemical factors that will most likely promote bundle formation in bull sperm. These factors include fluid viscosity, swim-up process, post-thaw incubation time and media additives which promote capacitation. While viscosity does not seem to influence the degree of sperm bundling, swim-up, post-thaw migration time and suppressed capacitation increase the occurrence of sperm bundles. This leads to the conclusion that sperm bundling is a result of hydrodynamic and adhesive interactions between the cells which occurs frequently during prolonged incubation times.Copyright © 2022 Morcillo i Soler, Hidalgo, Fekete, Zalanyi, Khalil, Yeste and Magdanz.

JTD Keywords: acrosome reaction, adhesion, bundling, capacitation, cell-cell interaction, cooperation, cooperative behaviour, fertilization, mammals, membrane, motility, progesterone, sperm competition, sperm migration, sperm selection, Bovine spermatozoa, Bundling, Cell-cell interaction, Cooperative behaviour, Sperm competition, Sperm migration, Sperm selection, Spermatozoa