by Keyword: elisa

Boda, SK, Willkomm, N, Barrera, MS, Mansky, L, Aparicio, C, (2023). Electrostatic capture of viruses on cationic biopolymer membranes for intra-oral disease sampling Colloids And Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 232, 113602

Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs are the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) -recommended disease sampling methods for respiratory viruses. The short swabbing time for sampling by these methods may lead to variability in test results. Further, these methods are mildly invasive and can cause discomfort, tearing or gag reflexes in tested individuals. If longer sampling time is coupled with lesser patient discomfort, test reliability and patient compliance can be improved. Towards this end, we developed cationic biopolymer membranes for the electrostatic capturing of viruses in the oral cavity. Here, chemically (EDC-NHS) crosslinked uncharged chitosan (CS) nanofiber membranes were conferred either with negative surface charge by anionic poly-aspartic acid (pAsp) coating or positive charge by cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL). Consistent with our preliminary findings of dynamic light scattering (DLS) size measurements showing large agglomerates of anionic virus-like particles (VLPs) and cationic PLL in solution, a 75% increase in VLP adsorption by PLL coated CS membranes was recorded by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in comparison to untreated controls. It is envisaged that the electrostatic concentration of respiratory viruses on cationic membranes can be superior alternatives to traditional swabbing in the oral cavity.

JTD Keywords: Cationic biopolymer membranes, Disease sampling, Dynamic light scattering (dls), Electrostatic capture of viruses, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), Magnetic beads, Virus -like particles (vlps)

van Aalen, EA, Rosier, BJHM, Jansen, T, Wouters, SFA, Vermathen, RT, van der Veer, HJ, Lozano, JY, Mughal, S, Fernández-Costa, J, Ramón-Azcón, J, den Toonder, JMJ, Merkx, M, (2023). Integrated Bioluminescent Immunoassays for High-Throughput Sampling and Continuous Monitoring of Cytokines Analytical Chemistry 95, 8922-8931

Immunoassays show great potential for the detection of low levels of cytokines, due to their high sensitivity and excellent specificity. There is a particular demand for biosensors that enable both high-throughput screening and continuous monitoring of clinically relevant cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). To this end, we here introduce a novel bioluminescent immunoassay based on the ratiometric plug-and-play immunodiagnostics (RAPPID) platform, with an improved intrinsic signal-to-background and an >80-fold increase in the luminescent signal. The new dRAPPID assay, comprising a dimeric protein G adapter connected via a semiflexible linker, was applied to detect the secretion of IL-6 by breast carcinoma cells upon TNFα stimulation and the production of low concentrations of IL-6 (∼18 pM) in an endotoxin-stimulated human 3D muscle tissue model. Moreover, we integrated the dRAPPID assay in a newly developed microfluidic device for the simultaneous and continuous monitoring of changes in IL-6 and TNFα in the low-nanomolar range. The luminescence-based read-out and the homogeneous nature of the dRAPPID platform allowed for detection with a simple measurement setup, consisting of a digital camera and a light-sealed box. This permits the usage of the continuous dRAPPID monitoring chip at the point of need, without the requirement for complex or expensive detection techniques.

JTD Keywords: cells, code, elisa, il-6, inflammation, kits, pathogenesis, procalcitonin, release, Interleukin-6

de la Serna, E, Arias-Alpízar, K, Borgheti-Cardoso, LN, Sanchez-Cano, A, Sulleiro, E, Zarzuela, F, Bosch-Nicolau, P, Salvador, F, Molina, I, Ramírez, M, Fernàndez-Busquets, X, Sánchez-Montalvá, A, Baldrich, E, (2021). Detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1 h using a simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Analytica Chimica Acta 1152, 338254

© 2021 Elsevier B.V. Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by protists of the genus Plasmodium, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Analytical methodologies and efficient drugs exist for the early detection and treatment of malaria, and yet this disease continues infecting millions of people and claiming several hundred thousand lives each year. One of the reasons behind this failure to control the disease is that the standard method for malaria diagnosis, microscopy, is time-consuming and requires trained personnel. Alternatively, rapid diagnostic tests, which have become common for point-of-care testing thanks to their simplicity of use, tend to be insufficiently sensitive and reliable, and PCR, which is sensitive, is too complex and expensive for massive population screening. In this work, we report a sensitive simplified ELISA for the quantitation of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-LDH), which is capable of detecting malaria in 45–60 min. Assay development was founded in the selection of high-performance antibodies, implementation of a poly-horseradish peroxidase (polyHRP) signal amplifier, and optimization of whole-blood sample pre-treatment. The simplified ELISA achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.11 ng mL−1 and 0.37 ng mL−1, respectively, in lysed whole blood, and an LOD comparable to that of PCR in Plasmodium in vitro cultures (0.67 and 1.33 parasites μL−1 for ELISA and PCR, respectively). Accordingly, the developed immunoassay represents a simple and effective diagnostic tool for P. falciparum malaria, with a time-to-result of <60 min and sensitivity similar to the reference PCR, but easier to implement in low-resource settings.

JTD Keywords: malaria quantitative diagnosis, plasmodium culture, plasmodium ldh, polyhrp signal amplifier, simplified elisa, Malaria quantitative diagnosis, Plasmodium culture, Plasmodium ldh, Polyhrp signal amplifier, Simplified elisa

Sanmartí-Espinal, M., Galve, R., Iavicoli, P., Persuy, M. A., Pajot-Augy, E., Marco, M. P., Samitier, J., (2016). Immunochemical strategy for quantification of G-coupled olfactory receptor proteins on natural nanovesicles Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 139, 269-276

Cell membrane proteins are involved in a variety of biochemical pathways and therefore constitute important targets for therapy and development of new drugs. Bioanalytical platforms and binding assays using these membrane protein receptors for drug screening or diagnostic require the construction of well-characterized liposome and lipid bilayer arrays that act as support to prevent protein denaturation during biochip processing. Quantification of the protein receptors in the lipid membrane arrays is a key issue in order to produce reproducible and well-characterized chips. Herein, we report a novel immunochemical analytical approach for the quantification of membrane proteins (i.e., G-protein-coupled receptor, GPCR) in nanovesicles (NVs). The procedure allows direct determination of tagged receptors (i.e., c-myc tag) without any previous protein purification or extraction steps. The immunochemical method is based on a microplate ELISA format and quantifies this tag on proteins embedded in NVs with detectability in the picomolar range, using protein bioconjugates as reference standards. The applicability of the method is demonstrated through the quantification of the c-myc-olfactory receptor (OR, c-myc-OR1740) in the cell membrane NVs. The reported method opens the possibility to develop well-characterized drug-screening platforms based on G-coupled proteins embedded on membranes.

JTD Keywords: Bioelectronic nose, Competitive ELISA, G-protein-coupled receptors quantification, Natural vesicles, Olfactory receptors, Transmembrane proteins