by Keyword: hardness

Sans, J, Arnau, M, Roa, JJ, Turon, P, Alernan, C, (2022). Tailorable Nanoporous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Electrothermal Catalysis Acs Applied Nano Materials 5, 8526-8536

Polarized hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds with customized architecture at the nanoscale have been presented as a green alternative to conventional catalysts used for carbon and dinitrogen fixation. HAp printable inks with controlled nanoporosity and rheological properties have been successfully achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel. Nanoporous scaffolds with good mechanical properties, as demonstrated by means of the nanoindentation technique, have been obtained by a sintering treatment and the posterior thermally induced polarization process. Their catalytic activity has been evaluated by considering three different key reactions (all in the presence of liquid water): (1) the synthesis of amino acids from gas mixtures of N-2, CO2, and CH4; (2) the production of ethanol from gas mixtures of CO2 and CH4; and (3) the synthesis of ammonia from N-2 gas. Comparison of the yields obtained by using nanoporous and nonporous (conventional) polarized HAp catalysts shows that both the nanoporosity and water absorption capacity of the former represent a drawback when the catalytic reaction requires auxiliary coating layers, as for example for the production of amino acids. This is because the surface nanopores achieved by incorporating Pluronic hydrogel are completely hindered by such auxiliary coating layers. On the contrary, the catalytic activity improves drastically for reactions in which the HAp-based scaffolds with enhanced nanoporosity are used as catalysts. More specifically, the carbon fixation from CO2 and CH4 to yield ethanol improves by more than 3000% when compared with nonporous HAp catalyst. Similarly, the synthesis of ammonia by dinitrogen fixation increases by more than 2000%. Therefore, HAp catalysts based on nanoporous scaffolds exhibit an extraordinary potential for scalability and industrial utilization for many chemical reactions, enabling a feasible green chemistry alternative to catalysts based on heavy metals.

JTD Keywords: Amino acids, Amino-acids, Ammonium production, Bone, Carbon fixation, Composites, Constitutive phases, Decarbonization, Dinitrogen, Ditrogen fixation, Elastic-modulus, Electrophotosynthesis, Ethanol production, Hardness, Indentation, Nanoindentation, Pluronic hydrogel, Polarized hydroxyapatite

Tejo-Otero, A, Fenollosa-Artes, F, Achaerandio, I, Rey-Vinolas, S, Buj-Corral, I, Mateos-Timoneda, MA, Engel, E, (2022). Soft-Tissue-Mimicking Using Hydrogels for the Development of Phantoms Gels 8, 40

With the currently available materials and technologies it is difficult to mimic the mechanical properties of soft living tissues. Additionally, another significant problem is the lack of information about the mechanical properties of these tissues. Alternatively, the use of phantoms offers a promising solution to simulate biological bodies. For this reason, to advance in the state-of-the-art a wide range of organs (e.g., liver, heart, kidney as well as brain) and hydrogels (e.g., agarose, polyvinyl alcohol –PVA–, Phytagel –PHY– and methacrylate gelatine –GelMA–) were tested regarding their mechanical properties. For that, viscoelastic behavior, hardness, as well as a non-linear elastic mechanical response were measured. It was seen that there was a significant difference among the results for the different mentioned soft tissues. Some of them appear to be more elastic than viscous as well as being softer or harder. With all this information in mind, a correlation between the mechanical properties of the organs and the different materials was performed. The next conclusions were drawn: (1) to mimic the liver, the best material is 1% wt agarose; (2) to mimic the heart, the best material is 2% wt agarose; (3) to mimic the kidney, the best material is 4% wt GelMA; and (4) to mimic the brain, the best materials are 4% wt GelMA and 1% wt agarose. Neither PVA nor PHY was selected to mimic any of the studied tissues. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: brain, composite hydrogel, dynamic mechanical analysis, elastography, hardness, hydrogels, in-vitro, liver, materials, mechanical-properties, mimicking, soft tissues, tissue scaffolding, viscoelasticity, warner-braztler shear test, warner–braztler shear test, Dynamic mechanical analysis, Hardness, Hydrogels, Materials, Mimicking, Soft tissues, Tissue scaffolding, Viscoelastic characterization, Viscoelasticity, Warner–braztler shear test

Babeli, I, Puiggalí-Jou, A, Roa, JJ, Ginebra, MP, García-Torres, J, Alemán, C, (2021). Hybrid conducting alginate-based hydrogel for hydrogen peroxide detection from enzymatic oxidation of lactate International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules 193, 1237-1248

A conducting nanocomposite hydrogel is developed for the detection of L-lactate. The hydrogel is based on a mixture of alginate (Alg) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which is loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNP). In this novel hydrogel, Alg provides 3D structural support and flexibility, PEDOT confers conductivity and sensing capacity, and GNP provides signal amplification with respect to simple voltammetric and chronoamperometric response. The synergistic combination of the properties provided by each component results in a new flexible nanocomposite with outstanding capacity to detect hydrogen peroxide, which has been used to detect the oxidation of L-lactate. The hydrogel detects hydrogen peroxide with linear response and limits of detection of 0.91 ?M and 0.02 ?M by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, respectively. The hydrogel is functionalized with lactate oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate, forming hydrogen peroxide. For L-lactate detection, the functionalized biosensor works in two linear regimes, one for concentrations lower than 5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.4 mM, and the other for concentrations up to 100 mM with a limit of detection of 3.5 mM. Because of its linear range interval, the developed biosensor could be suitable for a wide number of biological fluids. © 2021

JTD Keywords: biosensor, dehydrogenase, enzymatic oxidation, films, hardness, indentation, lactate oxidase, Biosensor, Elastic-modulus, Enzymatic oxidation, Lactate, Lactate oxidase, Reacciones enzimáticas