by Keyword: low-cost

Cuervo, R, Rodriguez-Lázaro, MA, Farré, R, Gozal, D, Solana, G, Otero, J, (2023). Low-cost and open-source neonatal incubator operated by an Arduino microcontroller Hardwarex 15, e00457

An unacceptably large number of newborn infants die in developing countries. For a considerable number of cases (particularly in preterm infants), morbidity and mortality can be reduced by simply maintaining newborn thermal homeostasis during the first weeks of life. Unfortunately, deaths caused by prematurity remain inordinately common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to reduced access to incubators in light of the high cost of commercially available devices. We herein describe and test a low-cost and easy-to-assemble neonatal incubator created with inexpensive materials readily available in LMICs. The incubator is based on an Arduino microcontroller. It maintains controlled temperature and relative humidity inside the main chamber while continuously measuring newborn weight progress. Moreover, the incubator has a tilting bed system and an additional independent safety temperature alarm. The performance of the novel low-cost neonatal incubator was evaluated and successfully passed the IEC 60601-2-19 standards. In the present work, we provide all the necessary technical information, which is distributed as open source. This will enable assembly of very low-cost (<250 €) and fully functional incubators in LMICs that should help reduce neonatal mortality.© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

JTD Keywords: arduino, control systems, developing countries, low-cost, low-resource regions, noise, preterm infant, Arduino, Control systems, Developing countries, Low-cost, Low-resource regions, Mortality, Neonatal incubator, Preterm infant

Farre, R, Rodriguez-Lazaro, MA, Dinh-Xuan, AT, Pons-Odena, M, Navajas, D, Gozal, D, (2021). A low-cost, easy-to-assemble device to prevent infant hyperthermia under conditions of high thermal stress International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 18, 13382

High ambient temperature and humidity greatly increase the risk of hyperthermia and mortality, particularly in infants, who are especially prone to dehydration. World areas at high risk of heat stress include many of the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most of their inhabitants have no access to air conditioning. This study aimed to design, evaluate, and test a novel low-cost and easy-to-assemble device aimed at preventing the risk of infant hyperthermia in LMICs. The device is based on optimizing negative heat transfer from a small amount of ice and transferring it directly to the infant by airflow of refrigerated air. As a proof of concept, a device was assembled mainly using recycled materials, and its performance was assessed under laboratory-controlled conditions in a climatic chamber mimicking realistic stress conditions of high temperature and humidity. The device, which can be assembled by any layperson using easily available materials, provided sufficient refrigerating capacity for several hours from just 1–2 kg of ice obtained from a domestic freezer. Thus, application of this novel device may serve to attenuate the adverse effects of heat stress in infants, particularly in the context of the evolving climatic change trends. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

JTD Keywords: air conditioning, ambient-temperature, death, heat, heat index, heat shock, heatwave, high ambient temperature, hyperthermia, low-cost refrigeration, low-middle income countries, mortality, negative heat transfer, Air conditioning, Algorithm, Article, Climate change, Cost benefit analysis, Environmental temperature, Heat index, Heat shock, Heat stress, Heat transfer, Heating, Heatwave, High ambient temperature, High temperature, Humidity, Hyperthermia, Low income country, Low-cost refrigeration, Low-middle income countries, Middle income country, Middle-income countries, Negative heat transfer, Prevention study, Refrigeration, Temperature stress, Thawing