by Keyword: lumen

Matejčić, Marija, Trepat, Xavier, (2023). Mechanobiological approaches to synthetic morphogenesis: learning by building Trends In Cell Biology 33, 95-111

Tissue morphogenesis occurs in a complex physicochemical microenvironment with limited experimental accessibility. This often prevents a clear identification of the processes that govern the formation of a given functional shape. By applying state-of-the-art methods to minimal tissue systems, synthetic morphogenesis aims to engineer the discrete events that are necessary and sufficient to build specific tissue shapes. Here, we review recent advances in synthetic morphogenesis, highlighting how a combination of microfabrication and mechanobiology is fostering our understanding of how tissues are built.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: cell dynamics, elongation, endothelial-cells, epithelium, growth, lumen, mechanical tension, patterns, self-organization, synthetic morphogenesis, tissue folding, tissue mechanics, topological defects, Stem-cells, Tissue shape

Blithikioti C, Miquel L, Paniello B, Nuño L, Gual A, Ballester BR, Fernandez A, Herreros I, Verschure P, Balcells-Olivero M, (2022). Chronic cannabis use affects cerebellum dependent visuomotor adaptation Journal Of Psychiatric Research 156, 8-15

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances in the world. However, its effects on human cognition are not yet fully understood. Although the cerebellum has the highest density of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) in the human brain, literature on how cannabis use affects cerebellar-dependent learning is sparse. This study examined the effect of chronic cannabis use on sensorimotor adaptation, a cerebellar-mediated task, which has been suggested to depend on endocannabinoid signaling.Chronic cannabis users (n = 27) with no psychiatric comorbidities and healthy, cannabis-naïve controls (n = 25) were evaluated using a visuomotor rotation task. Cannabis users were re-tested after 1 month of abstinence (n = 13) to assess whether initial differences in performance would persist after cessation of use.Cannabis users showed lower adaptation rates compared to controls at the first time point. However, this difference in performance did not persist when participants were retested after one month of abstinence (n = 13). Healthy controls showed attenuated implicit learning in the late phase of the adaptation during re-exposure, which was not present in cannabis users. This explains the lack of between group differences in the second time point and suggests a potential alteration of synaptic plasticity required for cerebellar learning in cannabis users.Overall, our results suggest that chronic cannabis users show alterations in sensorimotor adaptation, likely due to a saturation of the endocannabinoid system after chronic cannabis use.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

JTD Keywords: Addiction, Cannabis, Cerebellum, Endocannabinoid system, Visuomotor adaptation

Phuyal, Santosh, Djaerff, Elena, Le Roux, Anabel‐Lise, Baker, Martin J, Fankhauser, Daniela, Mahdizadeh, Sayyed Jalil, Reiterer, Veronika, Parizadeh, Amirabbas, Felder, Edward, Kahlhofer, Jennifer C, Teis, David, Kazanietz, Marcelo G, Geley, Stephan, Eriksson, Leif, Roca‐Cusachs, Pere, Farhan, Hesso, (2022). Mechanical strain stimulates COPII-dependent secretory trafficking via Rac1 Embo Journal 41, e110596

Cells are constantly exposed to various chemical and physical stimuli. While much has been learned about the biochemical factors that regulate secretory trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), much less is known about whether and how this trafficking is subject to regulation by mechanical signals. Here, we show that subjecting cells to mechanical strain both induces the formation of ER exit sites (ERES) and accelerates ER-to-Golgi trafficking. We found that cells with impaired ERES function were less capable of expanding their surface area when placed under mechanical stress and were more prone to develop plasma membrane defects when subjected to stretching. Thus, coupling of ERES function to mechanotransduction appears to confer resistance of cells to mechanical stress. Furthermore, we show that the coupling of mechanotransduction to ERES formation was mediated via a previously unappreciated ER-localized pool of the small GTPase Rac1. Mechanistically, we show that Rac1 interacts with the small GTPase Sar1 to drive budding of COPII carriers and stimulates ER-to-Golgi transport. This interaction therefore represents an unprecedented link between mechanical strain and export from the ER.© 2022 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

JTD Keywords: cells, copii, docking, endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic-reticulum, er, gtpase, mechanobiology, proliferation, protein, reticulum exit sites, web server, Copii, Fast interaction refinement, Mechanobiology

Garreta E, Nauryzgaliyeva Z, Marco A, Safi W, Montserrat N, (2022). Dissecting nephron morphogenesis using kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells Current Opinion In Genetics & Development 72, 22-29

During kidney development the emergence of complex multicellular shapes such as the nephron (the functional unit of the kidney) rely on spatiotemporally coordinated developmental programs. These involve gene regulatory networks, signaling pathways and mechanical forces, that work in concert to shape and form the nephron(s). The generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells now represent an unprecedented experimental set up to study these processes. Here we discuss the potential applications of kidney organoids to advance our knowledge of how mechanical forces and cell fate specification spatiotemporally interact to orchestrate nephron patterning and morphogenesis in humans. Progress in innovative techniques for quantifying and perturbing these processes in a controlled manner will be crucial. A mechanistic understanding of the multicellular dynamic processes occurring during nephrogenesis will pave the way to unveil new mechanisms of human kidney disease. © 2021

JTD Keywords: differentiation, dynamics, induction, lumen formation, models, mouse, organogenesis, reveals, tubules, Divergent features