by Keyword: morbidity

Tas B, Kalk NJ, Lozano- García M, Rafferty GF, Cho PSP, Kelleher M, Moxham J, Strang J, Jolley CJ, (2022). Undetected Respiratory Depression in People with Opioid Use Disorder Drug And Alcohol Dependence 234, 109401

Background: Opioid-related deaths are increasing globally. Respiratory complications of opioid use and underlying respiratory disease in people with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) are potential contributory factors. Individual variation in susceptibility to overdose is, however, incompletely understood. This study investigated the prevalence of respiratory depression (RD) in OUD treatment and compared this to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of equivalent severity. We also explored the contribution of opioid agonist treatment (OAT) dosage, and type, to the prevalence of RD. Methods: There were four groups of participants: 1) OUD plus COPD (‘OUD-COPD’, n = 13); 2) OUD without COPD (‘OUD’, n = 7); 3) opioid-naïve COPD patients (‘COPD'n = 13); 4) healthy controls (‘HC'n = 7). Physiological indices, including pulse oximetry (SpO2%), end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), transcutaneous CO2 (TcCO2), respiratory airflow and second intercostal space parasternal muscle electromyography (EMGpara), were recorded continuously over 40 min whilst awake at rest. Significant RD was defined as: SpO2%< 90% for > 10 s, ETCO2 per breath > 6.6 kPa, TcCO2 overall mean > 6 kPa, respiratory pauses > 10 s Results: At least one indicator was observed in every participant with OUD (n = 20). This compared to RD episode occurrence in only 2/7 HC and 2/13 COPD participants (p < 0.05,Fisher's exact test). The occurrence of RD was similar in OUD participants prescribed methadone (n = 6) compared to those prescribed buprenorphine (n = 12). Conclusions: Undetected RD is common in OUD cohorts receiving OAT and is significantly more severe than in opioid-naïve controls. RD can be assessed using simple objective measures. Further studies are required to determine the association between RD and overdose risk. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.

JTD Keywords: Comorbidity, Lung disease, Opioid substitution treatment, Opioids, Overdose, Respiratory depression

Raymond Y, Bonany M, Lehmann C, Thorel E, Benítez R, Franch J, Espanol M, Solé-Martí X, Manzanares MC, Canal C, Ginebra MP, (2021). Hydrothermal processing of 3D-printed calcium phosphate scaffolds enhances bone formation in vivo: a comparison with biomimetic treatment Acta Biomaterialia 135, 671-688

Hydrothermal (H) processes accelerate the hydrolysis reaction of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) compared to the long-established biomimetic (B) treatments. They are of special interest for patient-specific 3D-printed bone graft substitutes, where the manufacturing time represents a critical constraint. Altering the reaction conditions has implications for the physicochemical properties of the reaction product. However, the impact of the changes produced by the hydrothermal reaction on the in vivo performance was hitherto unknown. The present study compares the bone regeneration potential of 3D-printed α-TCP scaffolds hardened using these two treatments in rabbit condyle monocortical defects. Although both consolidation processes resulted in biocompatible scaffolds with osseointegrative and osteoconductive properties, the amount of newly formed bone increased by one third in the hydrothermal vs the biomimetic samples. B and H scaffolds consisted mostly of high specific surface area calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (38 and 27 m2 g-1, respectively), with H samples containing also 10 wt.% β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). The shrinkage produced during the consolidation process was shown to be very small in both cases, below 3%, and smaller for H than for B samples. The differences in the in vivo performance were mainly attributed to the distinct crystallisation nanostructures, which proved to have a major impact on permeability and protein adsorption capacity, using BSA as a model protein, with B samples being highly impermeable. Given the crucial role that soluble proteins play in osteogenesis, this is proposed to be a relevant factor behind the distinct in vivo performances observed for the two materials. Statement of significance: The possibility to accelerate the consolidation of self-setting calcium phosphate inks through hydrothermal treatments has aroused great interest due to the associated advantages for the development of 3D-printed personalised bone scaffolds. Understanding the implications of this approach on the in vivo performance of the scaffolds is of paramount importance. This study compares, for the first time, this treatment to the long-established biomimetic setting strategy in terms of osteogenic potential in vivo in a rabbit model, and relates the results obtained to the physicochemical properties of the 3D-printed scaffolds (composition, crystallinity, nanostructure, nanoporosity) and their interaction with soluble proteins.

JTD Keywords: 3d printing, behavior, biomimetic, bone scaffolds, calcium phosphate, deficient hydroxyapatite, design, graft, hydrothermal, in vivo, morbidity, osteoinduction, porosity, standard, tricalcium phosphate, 3d printing, Biomimetic, Bone scaffolds, Calcium phosphate, Fibula free-flap, Hydrothermal, In vivo

Farre, R., Montserrat, J. M., Navajas, D., (2008). Morbidity due to obstructive sleep apnea: insights from animal models Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine , 14, (6), 530-536

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder with clinically well known mid-term and long-term consequences. It is difficult, however, to investigate the mechanisms causing morbidity in OSA from human studies, owing to confounding factors in patients. Animal research is useful to analyze the various injurious stimuli--intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia, mechanical stress and sleep disruption--that potentially cause OSA morbidity. This review is focused on the most recent advances in our understanding of the consequences of OSA, achieved as a result of animal models. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal research has improved our knowledge of various aspects of the cardiovascular consequences of OSA: myocardial damage, left ventricular dysfunction, vasoconstriction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The systemic and metabolic consequences of OSA--inflammation, insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism and hepatic morbidity--have also been investigated with animal models. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the neurocognitive consequences of OSA--neuronal and brain alterations and cognitive dysfunctions--has also been improved through animal research. Moreover, animal models have recently been used to investigate the mechanisms of upper airway inflammation and dysfunction. SUMMARY: The simple experimental models used to investigate OSA morbidity are useful for investigating isolated mechanisms. However, more complex and realistic models incorporating the various injurious challenges characterizing OSA are required to more precisely translate the results of animal research to patients and to design potentially preventive and therapeutic strategies.

JTD Keywords: Animal model, Morbidity, Sleep apnea, Translational research