by Keyword: natural-history

Loeck, M, Placci, M, Muro, S, (2023). Effect of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in type A Niemann-Pick disease on the transport of therapeutic nanocarriers across the blood-brain barrier Drug Delivery And Translational Research 13, 3077-3093

ASM deficiency in Niemann-Pick disease type A results in aberrant cellular accumulation of sphingomyelin, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and early death. There is no available treatment because enzyme replacement therapy cannot surmount the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanocarriers (NCs) targeted across the BBB via transcytosis might help; yet, whether ASM deficiency alters transcytosis remains poorly characterized. We investigated this using model NCs targeted to intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), transferrin receptor (TfR), or plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein-1 (PV1) in ASM-normal vs. ASM-deficient BBB models. Disease differentially changed the expression of all three targets, with ICAM-1 becoming the highest. Apical binding and uptake of anti-TfR NCs and anti-PV1 NCs were unaffected by disease, while anti-ICAM-1 NCs had increased apical binding and decreased uptake rate, resulting in unchanged intracellular NCs. Additionally, anti-ICAM-1 NCs underwent basolateral reuptake after transcytosis, whose rate was decreased by disease, as for apical uptake. Consequently, disease increased the effective transcytosis rate for anti-ICAM-1 NCs. Increased transcytosis was also observed for anti-PV1 NCs, while anti-TfR NCs remained unaffected. A fraction of each formulation trafficked to endothelial lysosomes. This was decreased in disease for anti-ICAM-1 NCs and anti-PV1 NCs, agreeing with opposite transcytosis changes, while it increased for anti-TfR NCs. Overall, these variations in receptor expression and NC transport resulted in anti-ICAM-1 NCs displaying the highest absolute transcytosis in the disease condition. Furthermore, these results revealed that ASM deficiency can differently alter these processes depending on the particular target, for which this type of study is key to guide the design of therapeutic NCs.© 2023. Controlled Release Society.

JTD Keywords: asm deficiency, blood-brain barrier, delivery, determines, drug, endocytosis, enzymes, icam-1, lysosomal storage disease, mechanisms, nanoparticles, natural-history, niemann-pick disease type a, pv-1, receptor-mediated transcytosis, trafficking, transferrin receptor, Asm deficiency, Blood–brain barrier, Drug nanocarriers, Icam-1, Icam-1-targeted nanocarriers, Lysosomal storage disease, Niemann-pick disease type a, Pv-1, Receptor-mediated transcytosis, Transferrin receptor

Torp, N, Israelsen, M, Madsen, B, Lutz, P, Jansen, C, Strassburg, C, Mortensen, C, Knudsen, AW, Sorensen, GL, Holmskov, U, Schlosser, A, Thiele, M, Trebicka, J, Krag, A, (2021). Level of MFAP4 in ascites independently predicts 1-year transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis Jhep Rep 3, 100287

Background & Aims: Prognostic models of cirrhosis underestimate disease severity for patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is an extracellular matrix protein linked to hepatic neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis. We investigated ascites MFAP4 as a predictor of transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Methods: A dual-centre observational study of patients with cirrhosis and ascites recruited consecutively in relation to a paracentesis was carried out. Patients were followed up for 1 year, until death or liver transplantation (LTx). Ascites MFAP4 was tested with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD-Na), CLIF Consortium Acute Decompensation (CLIF-C AD), and Child-Pugh score in Cox regression models. Results: Ninety-three patients requiring paracentesis were included. Median ascites MFAP4 was 29.7 U/L [22.3–41.3], and MELD-Na was 19 [16–23]. A low MELD-Na score (<20) was observed in 49 patients (53%). During follow-up, 20 patients died (22%), and 6 received LTx (6%). High ascites MFAP4 (>29.7 U/L) was associated with 1-year transplant-free survival (p = 0.002). In Cox regression, ascites MFAP4 and MELD-Na independently predicted 1-year transplant-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, p = 0.03, and HR = 1.08, p = 0.01, respectively). Ascites MFAP4 and CLIF-C AD also predicted survival independently (HR = 0.96, p = 0.02, and HR = 1.05, p = 0.03, respectively), whereas only ascites MFAP4 did, controlling for the Child-Pugh score (HR = 0.97, p = 0.03, and HR = 1.18, p = 0.16, respectively). For patients with MELD-Na <20, ascites MFAP4 but not ascites protein predicted 1-year transplant-free survival (HR 0.91, p = 0.02, and HR = 0.94, p = 0.17, respectively). Conclusions: Ascites MFAP4 predicts 1-year transplant-free survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. In patients with low MELD-Na scores, ascites MFAP4, but not total ascites protein, significantly predicted 1-year transplant-free survival. Lay summary: Patients with cirrhosis who have fluid in the abdomen, ascites, are at an increased risk of death and in need for liver transplantation. Our study identified patients with ascites and a poor prognosis by measuring microfibrillar associated protein 4 (MFAP4), a protein present in the abdominal fluid. Patients with low levels of the MFAP4 protein are at particularly increased risk of death or liver transplantation, suggesting that clinical care should be intensified in this group of patients. © 2021 The Authors

JTD Keywords: biomarker, clif-c ad, clif consortium acute decompensation, cps, child-pugh score, crp, c-reactive protein, ct, computed tomography, decompensated, ecm, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, fluid protein, gfr, glomerular filtration rate, hr, hazard ratio, inr, internationalised normal ratio, liver disease, liver-cirrhosis, ltx, liver transplantation, markers, meld-na, model for end-stage liver disease, mfap4, microfibrillar associated protein 4, mortality, nash, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, natural-history, prognosis, risk-factors, sbp, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, scores, stage, Biomarker, Decompensated, Egfr, estimated gfr, Fibrosis, Liver disease, Mortality, Prognosis, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis